pISSN: 2723 - 6609 e-ISSN: 2745-5254
Vol. 5, No. 5 Mei 2024 http://jist.publikasiindonesia.id/
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2120
A Reflection of Man as a Social Being in Human Philosophical
Thought
Milton T. Pardosi
Universitas Advent Indonesia
*Correspondence
ABSTRACT
Keywords: Human;
Individual; Ethic; Social.
This research reflects on man as a social being and the
relationship of humans as a social being with philosophy.
The method used in this research is qualitative. The
researcher will use this type of research description based on
existing data or facts obtained in the field. The researcher
analyses library data to produce a new understanding of
human existence as a social being associated with the nature
of humans as social beings in the thought of Human
Philosophy. The results of the study are that human beings,
as social beings, are bound to norms or rules. Man is open
to the existence of others, shares the world with others, and
is responsible for society. The nature of man as a social
being is: Homo Religious; Homo Sapiens; Homo Viator;
Homo Creator; Homo Homini Lupus; Homo Homini Socius.
The relationship of man as a social being with philosophy
can be understood through the meaning of philosophy first.
The foremost question in the thought of Human Philosophy
is, "what is man?" The way to understand the nature of man
as a social creature in human philosophical thinking is: 1.
Some things experienced point to others. "I" refers entirely
to others; The objects that surround 'me' bear witness to
others. 2. Differences in interweaving: different contacts and
different attitudes. 3. Different assessments of the presence
of others: Opinions that more or less deviate from ours.
Man's company with other human beings takes away the 'me'
and the authority of human individuality itself. Others are
seen as threats to the self to maintain autonomy. Positive
Approach: "I" will achieve perfection only if it interacts with
"you" or others. Man is open to others and builds his history
with others.
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Introduction
Humans are creatures that are individual (individuality) and social (sociality). Man
is a social individual being and at the same time an individual social being (Suhartono,
1). Man is a person in whom there is body, soul and spirit. Basically, the whole of
humanity is related to these three things. Therefore, in his existence as an individual, "man
must be understood totally, and not his body or soul alone, his mind alone, or his
movements alone, but the whole element possessed".
In their individual state, the focus is on "the material aspect of human uniqueness."
This notion of individualism refers to its singularity among pluralities. Individualism, as
a view based on human autonomy, reaffirms that man is a unity over himself" (Hayati,
2021). This is related to the nature of man as "Homo Luden", i.e. "man is not like a robot
that runs automatically, but a person who behaves originally and freely with his choices
and decisions". Therefore, it can be concluded that man as an individual is a "stand-alone
being" (Purwosaputro & Sutono, 2021).
One of the proponents of Individualism was John Stuart Mill (1805-1873), who
stated that individual freedom is "the highest value that man possesses and cannot be
bargained" (Anwar, 2015). According to Mill, "the welfare and freedom of individuals,
whose survival is easily threatened by community interference, is a major concern". This
means that there is an influence from the existence of individuals in the midst of society
that is likely to limit or even threaten individual humans. According to John Stuart Mill
as quoted by Hadi, "The principle is: first, the individual is not responsible to society for
his actions insofar as they concern only himself and do not concern others... Second, that
for actions that harm the interests of others, the perpetrator is responsible and can be
subject to social sanctions or legal sanctions if the community considers that one of the
two alternatives is a means for protecting the rights of others" (Syahputra, 2020).
On the other hand, humans are also social creatures. Social here means society.
Humans are basically bound or related to other human beings. From the very beginning,
when a baby is born, the attachment and need for others is clearly visible in humans. A
newborn baby, at least, needs the presence of a mother and family. Man cannot live alone.
In order to survive, grow, develop and continue offspring, humans need others. The
dimension of sociality "shows that there is an interconnectedness of the individual with
outside himself, and that is society.
Because humans are unique as social creatures who cannot be separated from the
humans around them, it is necessary to have a science that thinks critically,
systematically, and logically about their existence or nature. Here emerged one branch of
philosophy, namely Human Philosophy, which observes human existence, including as
social beings.
Human philosophy that observes the nature of humans as social beings means:
"talking about the nature of human life together with other humans" (Santosa, 2013).
Mulyono further stated that talking about humans as social beings "is closely related to
Human Philosophy and General Ethics as norms of decency in individual life with
society".
Milton T. Pardosi
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2122
As mentioned earlier, humans are individual beings and social beings. Most
conflicts, both within (individual) and outside (social) man, occur because man needs to
understand his essence as an individual and social being properly. The problem of
individuals trying to influence social or social affects individuals has been going on for a
long time, although sometimes it succeeds and sometimes fails (Noortyani & Mu’in,
2023).
Human issues as social beings are challenging to discuss and resolve thoroughly.
Social conflicts and frictions between humans, religions, tribes and races in society and
even the state, including wanting to rule, are caused by issues of human existence as social
beings.
Therefore, through the background conveyed above, the author sees the need for a
simple explanation of humans as social beings in the understanding of Human Philosophy
itself. Some of the things discussed related to Human Philosophy in the study of humans
as social beings are: What is meant by humans as social beings? What is the nature of
man as a social being? How does man as a social being relate to Philosophy?
The purpose of this study is to understand the meaning of humans as social creatures
and to give meaning to the nature of man as a social being and the relationship of man as
a social being to Philosophy.
Research Methods
The method used in this study is a qualitative method, which is a research procedure
that produces descriptive data in the form of speech or writing and the observable
behavior of the subject itself (Furchan, 1992). Researchers will use this type of research
description based on existing data or facts obtained in the field (Furchan, 1992). The
method used in this research is qualitative. The researcher will use this type of research
description based on existing data or facts obtained in the field. The researcher analyses
library data to produce a new understanding of human existence as a social being
associated with the nature of humans as social beings in the thought of Human
Philosophy.
Results and Discussion
In Salam's presentation of man, it is said that man is an "ethical being." Ethical
beings here mean "having an ethical consciousness, which grows slowly in line with the
process of human growth since childhood. It is at the time of growth in which man is
already thinking and willing, that is where the initial stage enters the moral world"
(Sumanto, 2019). In other words, Salam divides human development into two stages:
"pre-moral consciousness leading to moral consciousness". The transition from the first
stage to the second stage takes time and process. To support this transition process,
humans need other individuals.
The two features of man as an ethical man, according to Salam, are man aware of
his existence and man with his open existence. When man is aware of his existence, man
must be mindful of both his "religious existence, his social existence and his cultural
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existence" (Sumanto, 2019). Salam explains that: "Religious existence means man's
awareness of his relationship as a being with his God or creator, i.e. God Almighty. This
consciousness is the source of religion." At the same time, cultural existence means:
"man's awareness that in order to remain sustainable in life and this life man must strive
to master and conquer this nature. It is this consciousness that is the fundamental
foundation for the creation of human culture. Finally related to the discussion of this
paper is social existence, which means: "the consciousness of man in this life, that he
must always be side by side with others, because he depends on others and vice versa. It
is this awareness that is the essence of the emergence of society.
The understanding of human beings as social beings who need the existence of
others can be clearly understood in the life of human infants. Human babies are different
from animal babies. Baby animals have "instincts that are specific and spontaneous
adaptations to the environment". Animals already have certain skills (instincts) in the
process of growing and surviving. Even those skills can add up without needing to be
specifically learned. However, human babies do not have these advantages. On the
contrary, "the human baby is programmed not to be programmed so that it depends
entirely on other adult humans".
Hadi explained that "basically human life is a shared experience; human life, even
in the most individual elements, is a common life; and human behaviour, in its basic
structure, always points to another person". This is corroborated by Leenhouwers who
states that: "The 'openness' of human life does not simply mean direction to the 'world' or
'material nature' or situations with its elements. Today, 'openness to others' is also
underlined. Man's life with others is as essential to man as it is to the 'world'" (Ja’far,
2011).
In relation to man, man "divides his world with others. Being in the 'world' or a
'situation' means that we are engaged together, even though each person will live that
involvement or direction in a uniquely personal way" (Ja’far, 2011). In conclusion,
according to Leenhouwers, man must divide the world together with other humans. Here,
man is led to make a positive contribution. Otherwise man "could not have given a fully
human complexion to our whole lives" (Ja’far, 2011).
In addition to man living for himself, man also lives for others. Here the term used
is "co-existence" which means "life contains openness to others". Therefore, the
attachment of individuals to other individuals is very important. According to systematic
theology, "it is said that the Absolute is only God. Therefore the perfection of man is
possible only in three orientations, namely orientation to others, to the world or nature
and God". This means that human interaction with others will help humans in the
development or perfection of humans themselves, namely body (matter), soul and spirit
(idea).
In living life as a social being, there is a socialite principle that must be understood.
Salam explains that the meaning of the socialite principle is: "The existence of humans is
always together. Thus, the existence of man in society means that in addition to being a
person, he is also a member of society who works responsibly for that society" (Salam,
Milton T. Pardosi
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2124
1988). Here requires a responsibility from each individual for what is done as a human
being.
Finally, Imannual Khan states that "man only becomes human if he is among men.
One can develop one's passions, attitudes, and ideals in interaction with others; one has
the opportunity to learn from others, identify the admired qualities of others to have, and
reject dislikes. Only in interacting with each other, in accepting each other and giving
one to realise and live one's humanity. There is ample evidence to suggest that the son of
man would not be human if he were not among men" (http://www.
davishare.com/2015/01/hakikat-manusia-pengertian-sifat-wujud.html).
Then, it can be concluded that humans as social beings are:
1. Humans need social interaction with other social beings
2. Humans depend on other individuals in self-development.
3. Human beings are subject to rules, social norms and ethics that exist in both local and
universal societies.
4. Every human action and behavior is expected to be judgment from other humans.
The Nature of Man as a Social Being
In this section, we will discuss some of the nature of humans as social creatures.
There are many explanations about the nature of man himself. However, what will be
discussed here is that the essence of man is associated with man as a social being.
Homo Religious
Homo religious means religious man. It is "the type of human being who lives in a
sacred realm, full of religious values and can enjoy the sacredness that exists and is visible
in the universe, the material realm, the plant realm, the animal and human realm"
(Mangunhardjono, 1982). As a perfect creature created by God, man is given the ability
to think, act, strive, and be able to determine what is good, right and wrong.
But on the other hand, humans are aware of the limitations and shortcomings that
exist in themselves. This is because man has fallen into sin and is possessed by sin.
Therefore, it is the purpose and essence of man as a religious being to realise and
acknowledge the existence of God the Creator and the desire to worship Him. "This
experience and appreciation of the Holy One further influences, shapes and determines
the pattern and way of life" (Mangunhardjono, 1982).
When it is associated with humans as social beings who are Homo Religious, it
means that humans are able to coexist with those who have different religious
understandings. Religious people will not question how other humans carry out their
religious activities or beliefs because, basically human nature is a religious being who
worships the Holy One, the Creator. At the same time, religious people will not do harm
to others even if it is in the context of practicing their own beliefs or religion. The
existence and awareness of humans as religious beings will help the development of a
better community life, especially in inter-religious harmony and religious pluralism.
At the same time, people who are homo-religious also need the support of those
around them. This support can come from people who have similar religious values as
well as from those who have different spiritual values. Man cannot develop his religious
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Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2125
values alone. Religion is synonymous with a collection of people. Spiritual people need
others to develop and improving their religious norms and values.
Homo Sapiens
Homo Sapiens means: thinking man. Animals are not thinking creatures because
animals only have instincts. In the state of man as a thinking man, man is divided into
several groups: "the Caucasoid race, the Mongoloid race, the Australoid race, the Negroid
race and some small special races" (Mudhofir, 2012).
As God's highest and noblest creature, man is given reason or the ability to think by
his Creator. In full, it can be identified that man has reason, mind, ratio, reason, creation
and charity so that man is able to develop himself as a whole person. Humans, as a living
organisms can grow and develop, but what distinguishes humans from other creatures is
that humans have the power to think so that they can speak, think, do, learn, and have
aspirations as a dreams in running a better life.
Regarding these intellectual faculties, Carrel stated that "each person is born with a
variety of intellectual capacities. But, big or small, to be actualised, this potential requires
constant practice and certain environmental conditions that are not yet well defined"
(Suhendri, 2018). This is where society is also influential in teaching, training and
developing the intellectual and intellectual abilities in the human being. Man cannot
alone develop the intellectual and intellectual potential in himself.
In another aspect where humans are social beings with this intellectual and
intellectual ability, humans are expected to use this ability to think not only to develop
themselves, but also to develop humans in their environment. Development in the
sciences that are beneficial to humans is expected from the ability of humans as thinking
beings. These self-thoughts can be taught and shared with society so that human life
socially will be better and advanced.
But what is happening now is that human beings, perhaps a small part, have used
that ability to think not for the good of society but rather for the coming difficulties and
hardships to society. The occurrence of crime, the use of science for negative things is
the result of intelligent humans who have used it for self-interest rather than the benefit
of society at large.
Humans who have the power of thinking, reason, ratio will use and use the results
of their thoughts for others. If man is constantly thinking but the results are not used for
and by others, then the results of those thoughts are of no benefit even to the thinker
himself. Thinking without benefit is very useless, that's why humans need others to use
and develop the results of their thinking.
Homo Viator
Homo Viator means: human traveler. What man means as a traveler is "man is not
a static being, man as a man who always 'becomes...' He always faces the object to be
worked on as it appears in relation to others".