p–ISSN: 2723 - 6609 e-ISSN: 2745-5254

Vol. 5, No. 9 September 2024 http://jist.publikasiindonesia.id/

Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 9, September 2024 3318

Application of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Learning

Model to Improve Student Learning Outcomes in Arithmetic

Row Material Class XI SMAN 6 Southwest Aceh

Khahona Afrinia

1*

, Baidullah

2

STKIP Muhammadiyah Aceh Barat Daya, Indonesia

Email:

1*

2

*Correspondence

ABSTRACT

Keywords: learning;

problem-based learning;

arithmetic line.

In this era of globalization, the low mathematics learning

outcomes of students at the high school level, especially at

SMAN 6 Aceh Barat South, are caused by the fact that in the

learning process, teachers only focus on using less

competent methods, so students get bored easily. The

purpose of this study is to determine the completeness of

student learning outcomes through Problem-Based Learning

on Arithmetic Rows and Series Materials. This research is

classified as a classroom action research that is carried out in

two research cycles. In each research cycle, there are 4 stages

consisting of planning, implementation, observation, and

reflection stages. Data collection in the study was carried out

using the test method. The data obtained in the study were

then analyzed by analytical descriptive analysis techniques

and qualitative descriptive analysis. The results of the study

showed that the average student learning outcome in the

pretest was 65.4 and increased in the post-test, which was

70.9. Based on these results, it can be seen that there is an

increase in student learning outcomes in each cycle.

Therefore, it can be concluded that the application of the

problem-based learning model can significantly improve the

mathematics learning outcomes of high school students.

Introduction

In the implementation of education, there is a learning process, where students at

each level are required to take part in certain subjects. One of the subjects taught at almost

every level of education is mathematics. Mathematics is generally defined as the field of

science about logic regarding shapes, arrangements, and concepts related to others

(Rahman & Hapizah, 2021). The educational process is essentially an empowerment

process, which is a process to reveal the potential that exists in humans as individuals

who can then contribute to their nation. Education is increasingly important in the process

of technological transformation, especially in today's era of globalization, especially

Application of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Learning Model to Improve Student Learning

Outcomes in Arithmetic Row Material Class XI SMAN 6 Southwest Aceh

Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 9, September 2024 3319

related to increasing knowledge in educational institutions through learning models

(Khakim, Santi, US, Putri, & Fauzi, 2022).

To achieve learning targets, teachers are required to be able to develop and use the

right learning model. In connection with this, efforts are made to provide opportunities

for students to improve Mathematics learning outcomes by using a Problem-Based

Learning model that is not only teacher-centered but also student-centered. One of the

ways to strengthen understanding of Mathematics learning outcomes is learning that can

provide opportunities for students to understand problems, provide answers or opinions,

and then draw conclusions (Novelni & Sukma, 2021).

According to Sukma, (2021) one of the right learning models is the Problems Based

Learning (PBL. Problem-Based Learning is a learning model that uses real problems that

are unstructured and open, in addition, the Problem-Based Learning model that uses real

problems with an open context and innovative learning can invite students to learn

actively in solving problems.

The ability to understand concepts plays a big role in determining student learning

outcomes in mathematics learning. Meanwhile, according to (Tyas, 2017), Problem-

Based Learning (PBL) is one of the learning models that makes problems the basis for

students to learn, problem-based learning is included in the category of teaching via

problem-solving, where learning mathematical content is carried out through the

presentation of inquiry-oriented problems. The problems presented in PBL are problems

in daily life and these problems can stimulate students to learn this problem based on the

knowledge and experience that students have had, so that from the experience that

students have had, new knowledge and experience will be formed. Therefore, having this

ability by students will make it easier to learn and solve mathematical problems. In

mathematics learning activities, emphasis should be placed on activities that can increase

understanding of concepts so that students have good basic skills to achieve other

mathematical skills such as reasoning, communication, connection, and problem-solving.

The learning process in the classroom by directing children to the ability to use formulas,

memorize formulas, mathematics only to do problems, rarely taught to analyze, and use

mathematics in daily life does not encourage children to develop their thinking skills

(ASTUTI, 2022).

Based on the observations and experiences that the researcher has observed, the

causes of students' lack of understanding of the material include students' interest in

participating in learning is still low, students thinking the subject is difficult, students'

initial knowledge is still low, students' low understanding of concepts, students lack

learning the material that has been given, teachers have not maximized the application of

innovative learning models. The Importance of Sharing Innovative Learning Practices

Understanding the material, this learning practice is expected to motivate other teachers

to design and implement innovative learning The role of a teacher who have the task of

educating, teaching, guiding, directing, training, assessing, and evaluating students.

According to (Nurlaelah, 2023), a teacher's responsibility is to carry out all stages or

phases of innovative teaching (creative and innovative learning, which is integrated with

Khahona Afrinia, Baidullah

Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 9, September 2024 3320

and by using learning methods, group discussions, and presentations so that learning goals

can be achieved).

The Problem-based learning (PBL) learning model is one of the innovative learning

models that can provide active learning conditions to students. Problem-Based Learning

(PBL) is a learning model that uses real problems as a context for students to develop

students problem-solving and critical-thinking skills. The problems used must be based

on daily life that is close to the student's life so that students can find mathematical

concepts on their own, especially arithmetic. The presentation of these problems can bring

students closer to mathematics and students can know the benefits of mathematics in daily

life and provide meaningful experiences in learning so that there can be an increase in

student learning (Aklimawati, Mahmuzah, & Rahmat, 2019). The role of teachers

includes a classroom manager who organizes and monitors student learning activities,

becomes a facilitator and motivator in implementing Problem-Based Learning, ensures

that Problem-Based Learning runs well, as a mediator between learning materials and

students, namely the teacher's ability to create learning media that can bridge students

with learning materials, and as an observer of student activity in the process Learning.

The teacher's responsibility here is as an administrator who prepares learning tools

according to the material and characteristics of students.

The error in determining the stage of problem-solving and the lack of understanding

of the meaning of the problem are the causes of failure to solve the problem. These

difficulties cause students to lack confidence when solving problems and have an impact

on low student learning outcomes. The difficulties experienced by students are caused by

a lack of attention and involvement of students in learning. For this reason, in the process

of learning mathematics, students generally do not like the field of mathematics study.

This is due to the tendency that what is displayed or taught to students is a series of

abstract and boring formulas (Widyasari, Miyono, & Saputro, 2024).

Therefore, it is necessary to choose a learning model that increases attention and

learning, so that students understand the meaning of formulas and concepts in arithmetic

rows and series materials. Several studies show that the learning model can be used to

improve learning achievement with the PBL model can be modified to further optimize

the quality of learning. Powerpoint media can be used to make the PBL model more

attractive. Problem-based learning (PBL) is a learning model with a student learning

approach to authentic problems so that he can compile his knowledge, grow and develop

higher skills and inquiry, make students independent, and increase confidence. In this

case, a similar study was also conducted by (Mulbar, Bernard, & Pesona, 2018) who

concluded that "through the application of the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) learning

model on Arithmetic problem material, the completeness of learning outcomes can be

achieved. Social arithmetic material is a material that has been taught since junior high

school grade VII in the even semester. According to (Aslam, Suparji, & Rijanto, 2021)

Social arithmetic material is one of the mathematics subject matter that must be

understood by grade VII students, social arithmetic material includes sales and purchase

prices, profits, losses, and break-even, profit and loss percentages, discounts, taxes, gross,

Application of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Learning Model to Improve Student Learning

Outcomes in Arithmetic Row Material Class XI SMAN 6 Southwest Aceh

Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 9, September 2024 3321

net value, and single interest. The social arithmetic material in this study is unit price,

selling price, purchase price, profit and loss, profit and discount percentage.

Based on some of the explanations and theories above, the researcher is interested

in conducting a study entitled "Application of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Learning

Model to Improve Student Learning Outcomes in Arithmetic Materials for Class XI

SMAN 6 Aceh Barat South.

Method

The method used in writing is a literature review. The literature studied is research

books and articles. The books studied are related to Educational Psychology, and

Teaching and Learning. The research articles studied are articles related to the Problem-

based Learning model. The focus of the study is on the theoretical foundation of Problem-

Based Learning, the character of the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) model, and the

implementation of the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) model (Ardianti, Sujarwanto, &

Surahman, 2021). The research approach used in this study is quantitative. The

quantitative approach is numerical data processed using statistical methods.1 While the

research method used in this study is the quasi-experimental method. The researcher used

this method because the samples taken were ordinary classes without changing the

existing structure. The design used in this study is the Pretest-Posttest Equivalent Group

Design. This research was conducted in two classes, namely the control class and the

experimental class. In the experimental class, a pre-test is given to see the ability of

student learning outcomes, after which learning treatment is given using the Problem-

Based Learning (PBL) learning model. After the learning is complete, students are then

given a final test (post-test) to see changes in student learning outcomes. Similarly, in the

control class, before the material is taught using direct learning, a pre-test will also be

given. After the learning is completed immediately, the final test is given.

Results and Discussion

In this study, student learning outcomes are seen from the results of the pre-test and

post-test given. The test is in the form of an essay consisting of 3 questions. The learning

outcomes are expected to be able to determine profits and losses and their percentages

and be able to solve real problems related to profit and loss.

The results of the pre-test showed the initial condition of student learning outcomes

which as a whole in the experimental and control classes were still resolved. However,

after the two were given treatment, namely in an experimental class using the Problem-

Based Learning (PBL) learning model. While the control class was treated using a direct

learning model, only then did the difference in student learning outcomes in social

arithmetic material be seen. This can be seen in the learning outcome scores in both

classes. In the experimental class, it appears that the learning outcomes of students

increase by using the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) learning model, this can be seen

from the results of the post-test of the experimental class, where the average score of the

post-test is higher than the average of the pre-test, where the average score of the pre-test

Khahona Afrinia, Baidullah

Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 9, September 2024 3322

is 65.4 and the posttest is 70.9 by using the t-test at the level of significance = 0.05 and

the degree of freedom (dk) = 24, the t-table of 1.71 and the t-count of 13.38 which means

that the t-count is more from the t-table, it can be concluded that student learning

outcomes increase with the Problem Based Learning (PBL) learning model.

During the learning process with the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) model,

students are faced with a real problem. Students understand the problem by observing and

reading the problem presented. Students look enthusiastic when observing and

understanding the problem. Students also actively ask questions about things they do not

understand, both to the teacher and their classmates. Students are also active in discussing

and collecting information from books, as well as asking directly to teachers to solve

problems in the LKPD that has been given.

At the stage of developing and presenting the work, students send two people from

their group to present answers to the completed LKPD. Students confidently explain the

results of their work to other visiting groups. This stage trains them to communicate the

ideas they have gotten. In addition, students can creatively develop character in

themselves. Based on the description above, it can be seen that the Problem-Based

Learning (PBL) learning model can improve student learning outcomes. This is in line

with research conducted by Yenni Fitria which concluded that "Through the application

of the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) learning model, it can improve students'

mathematics learning outcomes on problem-solving materials involving money (Yenni,

2019)".

Based on the results of data processing using N-Gain in the experimental class

(table 4.4), it was found that 6 students had high n-gain values, 14 students had medium

n-gain values and 4 students had low n-gain values. The results show that the n-gain value

of the experimental class is in a moderate position. Meanwhile, in the control class (table

4.12), it was found that 2 students had a high n-gain level, 7 students at a medium n-gain

level, and the remaining 16 students at a low n-gain level. The results show that the n-

gain value in the control class is in a low position. In addition, the average post-test score

of the learning outcomes of the experimental class students was (((x ), = 70.9) and the

average post-test score of the control class was ((x ), = 57.56) It was seen that the average

score of the experiment was higher than the average score of the control.

The data that has been analyzed obtained obtained the t-value for both classes, namely t-

calculation = 3.1697 and t-table 1.68. This result results in t-calculation ≥ t-table, which

is 3.1697 >1.68, thus it can be concluded that "the learning outcomes of students who are

taught with the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) learning model are higher than the

learning outcomes of students who are taught with direct learning".

Table 1

Acquisition of pre-test and post-test data of the Experiment class

No

Name

Group

Skor

pre-

test

Post-test

scores

N-

Gain

Effectiveness

Application of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Learning Model to Improve Student Learning

Outcomes in Arithmetic Row Material Class XI SMAN 6 Southwest Aceh

Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 9, September 2024 3323

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

AH

Experiment

64

95

0,86

Tall

2

AP

Experiment

45

55

0,18

Low

3

AR

Experiment

60

82

0,55

Keep

4

AA

Experiment

60

85

0,63

Keep

5

THREE

Experiment

25

60

0,47

Keep

6

FAA

Experiment

15

70

0,65

Keep

7

GT

Experiment

20

82

0,78

Tall

8

JR

Experiment

25

85

0,80

Tall

9

KR

Experiment

20

84

0,80

Tall

10

MN

Experiment

15

73

0,68

Keep

11

LS

Experiment

50

92

0,84

Tall

12

SR

Experiment

45

95

0,91

Tall

13

NS

Experiment

21

64

0,54

Keep

14

MP

Experiment

5

70

0,68

Keep

15

THE

Experiment

35

79

0,68

Keep

16

IN

Experiment

45

80

0,64

Keep

17

RK

Experiment

15

40

0,29

Low

18

KS

Experiment

35

75

0,62

Keep

19

CR

Experiment

20

70

0,63

Keep

20

NO

Experiment

25

43

0,24

Low

21

YEAR

Experiment

10

70

0,67

Keep

22

THREE

Experiment

40

76

0,60

Keep

23

CS

Experiment

35

74

0,60

Keep

24

NOT

Experiment

15

71

0,66

Keep

25

For

example

Experiment

10

36

0,29

Low

Table 2

Acquisition of pre-test and post-test data of the Control class

No

Name

Group

Skor

pre-test

Post-

test

scores

N-

Gain

Effectiveness

1

2

3

4

5

6

1

AH

Experiment

30

45

0,21

Low

2

AP

Experiment

65

69

0,11

Low

3

AR

Experiment

45

70

0,45

Keep

4

AA

Experiment

60

64

0,10

Low

5

THREE

Experiment

15

70

0,65

Keep

6

FAA

Experiment

25

40

0.20

Low

7

GT

Experiment

45

50

0,09

Low

8

JR

Experiment

40

52

0,20

Low

9

KR

Experiment

10

72

0.69

Keep

10

MN

Experiment

45

60

0,27

Low

Khahona Afrinia, Baidullah

Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 9, September 2024 3324

11

LS

Experiment

24

35

0,14

Low

12

SR

Experiment

45

75

0,55

Keep

13

NS

Experiment

25

70

0,60

Keep

14

MP

Experiment

35

52

0,26

Low

15

THE

Experiment

20

80

0,75

Tall

16

IN

Experiment

45

60

0,27

Low

17

RK

Experiment

34

50

0,24

Low

18

KS

Experiment

35

75

0,62

Keep

19

CR

Experiment

30

80

0,71

Tall

20

NO

Experiment

15

35

0,24

Low

21

YEAR

Experiment

15

32

0,20

Low

22

THREE

Experiment

30

45

0,51

Keep

23

CS

Experiment

60

80

0,50

Keep

24

NOT

Experiment

20

35

0,19

Low

25

For

example

Experiment

40

55

0,25

Low

The stages of Problem Based Learning (PBL) learning that the author believes can

improve learning outcomes, namely the first stage and the third stage. The first stage is

the stage of student orientation to the problem. At this stage, students are faced with real

problems, students feel challenged and motivated to solve the problems presented.

According to Ngalimun, if learning begins with a problem, especially a contextual

problem, then there can be a cognitive imbalance in the student. This situation encourages

curiosity so it raises various questions related to the problem. If the question has arisen,

then their intrinsic motivation to learn will appear. The third stage is to guide the

investigation independently or in groups. At this stage, students discuss defining

problems, and then conduct experiments to get explanations and problem-solving in

LKPD. So they construct their knowledge. This is in line with the view of constructivism

expressed by Cobb (Suherman, 2013) who said that learning is seen as an active and

constructive process where students try to solve problems that arise as they actively

participate in mathematics exercises in class.

Based on the results of the above research, it can be concluded that problem-based

learning is an effective learning model that benefits to supports students' achievement in

learning Mathematics, especially Arithmetic row material.

Conclusion

Based on the research that the author has carried out at SMAN 6 Aceh Barat South,

the t-count > t-table was obtained which is 13.3885 > 1.71. At a significant level = 0.05.

so it can be concluded that the learning outcomes of students who are taught with the

Problem-Based Learning (PBL) learning model are higher than the learning outcomes of

students who are taught with direct learning.

Application of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) Learning Model to Improve Student Learning

Outcomes in Arithmetic Row Material Class XI SMAN 6 Southwest Aceh

Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 9, September 2024 3325

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