pISSN: 2723 - 6609 e-ISSN: 2745-5254
Vol. 5, No. 5 Mei 2024 http://jist.publikasiindonesia.id/
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2363
Analysis of English Lesson Plans of Junior High School
Teachers in Bumiayu District
Bunga Putri Maulia
1*
, Khairunnisa Dwinalida
2
UIN Saizu Purwokerto, Indonesia
1*
2
*Correspondence
ABSTRACT
Keywords: Lesson Plan,
2013 Curriculum, English
Subject.
This study aims to find out the quality of lesson plans created
by English teachers of Junior High Schools at Bumiayu
Brebes Regency. The study is quantitative and descriptive,
using documentation techniques. The instrument assessment
in this study used an assessment sheet made with the 2013
curriculum standard by referring to Circular Letter Number
14 of 2019 concerning the Simplification of Lesson Plans,
which the expert has validated. The results of this study show
that English lesson plans generally dominated the “Below
Average” category, with 79%. It follows the results, which
show that the “Very Good” category is 0%, the “Good”
category is 2.6%, the “Average” category is 18.4%, and the
“Below Average” category is 79%. The data results are
stated based on the facts according to the field, and there is
no training or counselling on the preparation of good and
correct lesson plans that government regulations have
determined according to the 2013 curriculum. The main
focus needs to be on the competence of junior high school
English teachers at Bumiayu Brebes Regency, who have not
fully mastered the writing of lesson plans according to the
standard of writing lesson plans.
Introduction
In the learning process, a teacher has a great responsibility to help the students
succeed in cognitive aspects and emphasise the affective part of learning (Saidah et al.,
2021). The success of the learning process can be achieved with excellent and appropriate
lesson plans. According to Joseph and Leonard in Herviani & Budiastusi, inappropriate
lesson plans make the learning process ineffective and unsystematic (Agustinova, 2018).
This is because the teacher does not understand what will be taught and does not know
how to manage the class well (Herviani & Budiastuti, 2018). Considering the importance
of managing English learning, lesson plans must be adequately prepared, especially in the
preparation of English lesson plans, in order to produce a maximum learning process
(Wibowo, 2020). Not only that, lesson planning needs to be strategic yet straightforward
and accessible when preparing for various language learners’ needs. With this statement,
Bunga Putri Maulia, Khairunnisa Dwinalida
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2364
it can be concluded that one of the essential aspects of teaching is mastering the lesson
plan before the learning process. This is because the prepared lesson plan determines the
success of the implementation of learning (Ulfah & Arifudin, 2021).
Based on Permendikbud No. 22 of 2016 concerning primary and secondary
education standards, the lesson plan uses one or more face-to-face meetings. In this case,
the suitability of the learning objectives and materials must be correct (Futuningsari,
2021). Therefore, the writing of lesson plans must be adjusted to 2013 curriculum
standards. This aims to ensure that the learning process and learning objectives are on
target (Fahri & Lubis, 2022). The writing of the lesson plan must be in accordance with
the 2013 curriculum standards because the purpose of the 2013 curriculum is to produce
students who are independent and do not stop learning (Kusmiati et al., 2018).
Actually, lesson plans are essential, and all teachers must master them. However,
the problems found in this study based on the information in preliminary observations for
Junior High Schools in Bumiayu, Brebes Regency, are as follows. (1) The learning
process is disorganised and does not run smoothly. (2) There is an inconsistency between
learning objectives, learning activities, and assessment. (3) Students are not enthusiastic
and not motivated to participate in the learning process. With these problems, English
teachers of junior high schools at Bumiayu Brebes Regency need to examine the quality
of their lesson plans to find out where the problem is.
As for the results of previous studies, Fatmawati4 & Indriani5 stated that teachers'
ability to prepare lesson plans is still minimal. In line with them, Sartika Susanti stated
that there are still teachers who have limited skill and competence to make lesson plans.6
Currently, there are still many teachers who only download lesson plans from the internet
without paying attention to their suitability with their respective classroom contexts.
(Fathurrahman, Budiarti, Loklomin, & Kahar, 2020), Also explained that the ability of
English teachers to prepare lesson plans using the 2013 curriculum is still meagre.
The teachers in making lesson plans are: there is no curriculum training; the ability
to use the technology is still lacking; the teachers do not have good skills to make
indicators, the approach/the method/the strategy is not appropriate; there is no proficient
in developing learning activities, assessment techniques and instruments.9 This is
consistent with Mawardi's statement, which states that the competence of teachers in
preparing lesson plans is still low as a result of the teacher's lack of knowledge about the
preparation of lesson plans. This is also due to a lack of guidance and training.10
Meanwhile, Ratumanan and Tetelepta stated that teachers' lesson plans are still found
only in the “Sufficient” category. It makes the learner unable to perform a structured,
planned, and appropriate evaluation optimally. It also does not summarise knowledge,
attitude, and skill assessment tools.
Based on previous studies mostly focus on the lower ability of teachers to prepare
English lesson plans. On the other hand, the case has not been clear in Bumiayu, which
is one of the territories parts of Brebes Regency. The location was chosen because,
according to government data, the education in Brebes Regency was still underdeveloped.
Statistics Indonesia, known as Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS), suggests that the Human
Analysis of English Lesson Plans of Junior High School Teachers in Bumiayu District
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2365
Development Index in Brebes is currently 66.32%12 below the Ideal Human
Development Index in Central. Java of 72.16% and ranks 35 out of 35 districts/cities in
Central Java Province.13 In addition, no study has revealed the issue on that site. This
shows that there is still a study gap to be filled in. This study was conducted to fill in the
blanks.
In his study entitled “Peningkatan Kemampuan Guru Bahasa Inggris dalam
Merancang RPP Kurikulum 2013 Melalui Kegiatan Bimbingan Berkelanjutan”
conducted in SMP Negeri 5 Tebingtinggi City, Hutagaol used qualitative descriptive
method. In his study, Hutagaol stated that the English teachers’ ability to prepare lesson
plans using the 2013 curriculum was still very low. Most teachers could not create lesson
plans appropriately using the 2013 curriculum. This statement was recognised before
teacher mentoring.16
H D Mauliate, A Rahmat, and S Wachidah, in their study entitled “Evaluation the
Lesson Plan of English Language Learning in Junior High School Seraphine Bakti Utama
West Jakarta”, used the evaluation method using a model of the gap (discrepancy
evaluation model). Data collection techniques were performed through direct interviews,
documents, and field observation. The results showed that the teacher had not optimally
applied the principles and steps in preparing the lesson plan.17
The research by Khairil Anam entitled “Peran Supervisi Akademik Terhadap
Peningkatan Kemampuan Merancang Rencana Pelaksanaan Pelajaran Guru SMAN 1
Tanjung Jabung Barat Tahun Pelajaran 2018/2019” used qualitative descriptive method.
This study is action research at SMAN 1 Tanjung Jabung Barat. The result of this study
indicated that academic supervision was able to improve the ability of teachers to prepare
lesson plans.
Research Methods
Type of the Study
The type of this study was descriptive quantitative. Descriptive quantitative
research is the type of study that provides data in the form of words and numbers. The
method used in this study was the documentation technique. The instrument in this study
was the English lesson plans for the odd semester 2021/2022, which English teachers
created in Bumiayu. This study selected English lesson plans that were obtained from 25
teachers of Junior High Schools in Bumiayu based on the readiness and circumstances of
the school when collecting data.
Research Location
In this study, the researcher took the location at Bumiayu Brebes Regency, Central
Java. The reasons the researcher carried out this study at Bumiayu Brebes Regency were:
1. The Human Development Index in the Brebes Regency was still low, and one factor
was education. The study chose Bumiayu as the location because Bumiayu was one of
the territories of the Brebes Regency.
2. Bumiayu is considered as feasibility by the researcher.
Bunga Putri Maulia, Khairunnisa Dwinalida
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2366
3. The researcher chose Junior High School in Bumiayu Brebes Regency as the study
because English taught in Junior High School was basic English or the beginning of
learning English. Therefore, the suitability of the learning objectives and materials
must be correct so that the writing of lesson plans can be adjusted according to
standards.
Sources of Data
1. Time of the Study
This study was carried out from January 10 to February 28, 2022, in Bumiayu
Brebes Regency.
2. Subject of the Study
The subject of this study was the entire population, which included lesson plans
from 25 English teachers of junior high schools in Bumiayu, Brebes Regency. (The list
of Junior High Schools in Bumiayu Brebes Regency and the addresses are presented in
Appendix 4). The researcher did not determine the classes and materials from the lesson
plan. However, they were directly given by the 25 teachers based on the readiness and
circumstances of the school when collecting data. This was because this study only
focused on the components of the preparation of the lesson plans and their contents. The
other reason was that each grade level had the same composition of lesson plan
components, referring to Permendikbud No. 14 of 2019, concerning the simplification of
lesson plans. Therefore, the researchers did not focus on and did not limit it to one level.
In the assessment process, the experts randomised the lesson plans and assigned a
different serial number to assess the lesson plans, then made an assessment using an
assessment instrument in the form of an assessment sheet previously prepared. The
identity of the lesson plans from the assessment results in this study was kept confidential
to maintain the identity or good name of the school. (The table checklist of English lesson
plans from Junior High Schools in Bumiayu Brebes Regency is presented in Appendix
5).
3. Variable of the Study
The variable used in this study is the lesson plans which created by English teachers
in the odd semester of 2021/2022.
Data Collection Techniques
The data collection technique used in this study was documentation. Documentation
is a technique for obtaining data and information in the form of documents that support
the study. This study used the lesson plans of 2021, which were designed by the English
teachers of Junior High schools in Bumiayu based on the 2013 curriculum as the primary
data and analysed them.
The expert helped the researcher to justify the validity of the instrument. The expert
was needed because the competence of the researcher was not sufficient to assess whether
the lesson plan was feasible or not. The reason for choosing this expert is because the
expert has experience that is considered quite mastered in this field. The expert was a
teacher and headmaster for 4 years and has been the head of curriculum development for
1.5 years. With experience as the teacher and headmaster, it means the expert has
Analysis of English Lesson Plans of Junior High School Teachers in Bumiayu District
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2367
experience in making and assessing the lesson plan. The expert has also been the head of
curriculum development for 1.5 years, which means the expert will assess the ability of
the principal to assess the lesson plan made by the teachers. Besides that, the expert was
needed to ensure that no bias enters the selection process that consciously or
unconsciously influences the results and clarifies the validity of the results.
The instrument assessment in this study used an assessment sheet made with the
2013 curriculum standard by referring to Circular Letter Number 14 of 2019 concerning
the Simplification of the Lesson Plan. An assessment sheet used the Indonesian language
to anticipate any misunderstandings in the meaning of the study. The following is an
assessment sheet used in this study.
Data Analysis Techniques
This study used descriptive quantitative analysis and was carried out in 3 stages:
a. Analyze the lesson plans made by English teachers using a prepared instrument. The
expert checked the English lesson plans with an analysis instrument according to the
conditions of the English lesson plans that had been given.
b. Percentage of the Data
The researcher used the following formula to calculate the percentage:107
Where:
𝑷: Percentage
𝑭: Frequency being searched
𝑵: Number of cases (Number of frequency or number of individuals)
c. Grouping the scores by category
The researcher used the following scales of Supervision and Teacher Performance
Assessment (Supervisi et al./MPPKS- PKG). Here is the table of scales:
Table 1
A:
Very Good :
86%-100%
B:
Good :
76% - 85%
C:
Average :
56% - 75%
D:
Below Average:
under 55%
Results and Discussion
Findings
After collecting the data and conducting data analysis assisted by an expert, the
researcher obtained several findings and described the results as follows:
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Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2368
1. After analysing the English lesson plans collected from Junior High Schools in
Bumiayu Brebes Regency, the researcher found that, in general, the maximum score
is 79, the minimum score is 17, and the mean (average) is 48. The description of the
analysis results of the English lesson plans is presented in the bar chart below:
The bar chart above illustrates the lesson plans created by the English teachers of
Junior High Schools in Bumiayu Brebes Regency. The total number of lesson plans that
the researcher has obtained shows that no lesson plan belongs to the "Very Good"
category. The details of the categories can be explained as follows: 0% in the "Very
Good" category, 2,6% in the "Good" category, 18,4% in the "Average" category, and 79%
in the "Below Average" category. From the analysis of the results above, it can be seen
that the lesson plans by English teachers of Junior High Schools in Bumiayu Brebes
Regency are mostly in the "Below Average" category, which is 79%.
2. The analysis results of the lesson plans of English teachers of Junior High Schools at
Bumiayu Brebes Regency describe each component of the lesson plans as follows:
a. Subject Identity
The components of subject identity consist of education unit, class/semester,
theme/subtheme/chapter point, and time allocation. The percentage of the subject identity
is presented in the table below:
Table 2
Lesson Identity
Analysis Result
Frequency
None
0
Incomplete
0
Complete
38
Total
38
100
%
80
%
60
%
40
Percentages of English
Lesson
Plans
Category
18.40
%
0
%
A : Very
Good
2.60
%
B :
Good
(76% -
C :
Average
(56% -
D :
Below
Average
(Under
Percent
ages
Analysis of English Lesson Plans of Junior High School Teachers in Bumiayu District
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2369
The table above depicts the frequency and percentage of subject identity
components. Based on these data, it can be seen that the identity aspect of the subjects
has shown that 100% of English teachers can write the identity components perfectly,
which include the education unit, class/semester, theme/subtheme/chapter point, and time
allocation.
b. The Formulation of Learning Objectives
The formulation of learning objectives is a component that cannot be separated from
writing a lesson plan. The components of learning objectives formulation consist of two
aspects. The two aspects are:
1) Indicators of achievement of knowledge, skills, and attitudes in accordance with Basic
Competence.
2) Operational Verbs in accordance with Basic Competence.
The detailed analysis of the components and the formulation of learning objectives
are displayed in the tables below:
1) There are indicators of achievement of knowledge, skills, and attitudes in accordance
with Basic Competence
Table 3
Indicator
Analysis Result
Frequency
Percentage (%)
None
0
0%
Incomplete
30
79%
Complete
8
21%
Total
38
100%
The table above shows that the complete component represents only 21% of the
lesson plans obtained. This percentage describes the lesson plans that present the
indicators of achievement of knowledge, skills, and attitudes in accordance with Basic
Competence. At the same time, the remaining 79% is still considered in the "Incomplete"
category when writing this component.
2) There are activities relevant to the syntax/approach or model applied according to the
21st century (e.g., 4Cc)
Table 4 4Cs
Analysis Result
Frequency
Percentage (%)
None
9
24%
Incomplete
26
68%
Complete
3
8%
Amount
38
100%
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Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2370
The table above illustrates that more than half of the total lesson plans analysed
68%belong to the "Incomplete" category in presenting learning activities relevant to
the syntax/approach or model applied according to the 21st century (e.g., 4Cs). Only 8%
of lesson plans are in the "Complete" category, while the rest, 24%, do not belong to both
categories.
3) There are aspects of character strengthening, numerical basis, old/new literacy, HOTS,
HOMS, self-determined learning (independent), and exploring the potential for
multiple intelligence
Table 4
Aspects of character strengthening, numerical basis, old/new literacy, HOTS, HOMS,
and self-determined learning (independent) explore the potential for multiple
intelligence.
Analysis Result
Frequency
Percentage (%)
None
10
26%
Incomplete
25
66%
Complete
3
8%
Amount
38
100%
The results of the study on this component show that the lesson plans present
aspects of character strengthening, numerical basis, old/new literacy, HOTS, HOMS,
self-determined learning (independent), and explore the potential for multiple intelligence
in the "Complete" category only 8%. 92% of the lesson plan with details of 66% of the
lesson plans were in the "Incomplete" category in presenting this component and 26% in
the "None" category because they did not present this component perfectly.
Based on the analysis results, it showed that the lesson plans compiled by English
teachers of Junior High School at Bumiayu Brebes Regency based on its category can be
explained as follows: 0% “Very Good” category, 2.6% “Good” category, 18.4%
“Average” category, and 79% “Below Average” category. In general, it can be concluded
that the lesson plans compiled by English teachers belong to the “Below Average”
category of 79%. The results are written in accordance with the facts of lesson plan data
that have been obtained from the English teacher in an analysis instrument based on the
components below.
1. Subject Identity Component
In the subject identity component, which consists of education unit, class/semester,
theme/subtheme/chapter point, and time allocation, all English teachers are considered to
be able to write well with a percentage of 100%. This is based on the results of the study,
which stated that all the lesson plans that had been analysed had presented the identity
components of the subjects well and perfectly. This can happen because the identity
component is only formatted. Formatted means something general and usually written so
that anyone can easily master it. In addition, the identity of the lesson is also not part of
Analysis of English Lesson Plans of Junior High School Teachers in Bumiayu District
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2371
the core component of the lesson plan, so this component is considered not too important
in the lesson plan.
However, it cannot be taken for granted. This is in line with Wahidmurni's opinion,
which stated that if only three core components are written, then the only persons who
understand the lesson plans very well are the teachers who made them. While other
people, such as school principals and supervisors, do not know specific information
related to the lesson plan.109 Therefore, it is important to include the subject's identity
specifically in writing the lesson plan so that those who can find out specific information
related to the lesson plan are not only subject teachers.
Even though all the teachers presented the identity components of the subjects well
and perfectly, teachers still must be reminded to receive advice regarding the importance
of writing down the identity of the lesson plan so that specific information related to the
lesson plan is known not only by subject teachers but also by the principal, other teachers,
and supervisors.
2. Components of Formulation of Learning Objectives
a. There are indicators of achievement of knowledge, skills, and attitudes according to
Basic Competence
It was found that 79% of the teachers were not perfect in presenting the indicator
of the achievement of knowledge, skills, and attitudes according to Basic Competence.
This shows that teachers still have significant problems in lesson planning related to the
presentation of indicators. Meanwhile, this achievement indicator is considered very 109
Wahidmurni. Rencana Pelaksanaan Pembelajaran: RPP 1 Lembar. (Malang : UIN
Malang, 2020). P. 9 important.
Teachers are suggested to join training to formulate appropriate learning objectives.
This is because formulating learning objectives is one of the very basic and essential
aspects of making lesson plans. No matter how good the learning objectives are, if the
learning indicators are not relevant, the learning is considered to be poor. Therefore, this
training needs to be carried out so that teachers are able to master the presentation of the
perfect formulation of learning objectives.
b. Using Operational Verbs in accordance with Basic Competence
Based on the lesson plans that were analysed, 84% of lesson plans used operational
verbs but were not in accordance with basic competence.
For a teacher, opening is an important basic skill to achieve practical, efficient,
engaging, and fun learning. Even though it looks easy, not all teachers can carry out the
learning process well. This has a significant influence on the success and enthusiasm or
interest of students in learning. This is because when teaching and learning activities
begin, not all students have mental readiness and interest in participating in the learning
process. This is in line with the opinion of Monica and Hadiwinarto, who stated that the
skills of opening and closing learning have a significant effect on student learning
activity.116
The principles of a good learning opening are meaningful, continuous, enthusiastic,
flexible, warm communication, use technical principles to open lessons, not complicated,
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Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2372
short, concise, clear, and can increase student attention. This is in line with the opinion
expressed by Monica and Hadiwinarto, who stated that the opening is to build a conducive
classroom atmosphere in order to make students' attention focused on the learning
process. 117 In a good opening, there is not only a greeting, self-introduction, and telling
of the material to be taught but more than that. Teachers need to know the right gestures
to convey the opening and the words to inject enthusiasm into students. The steps in
opening lesson skills that the teacher must carry out include opening sentences, greetings,
prayers, checking attendance, apperception, motivation, stimulus, conveying learning
objectives, scope, the scope of material, learning steps, and assessment techniques. This
is very much needed to achieve learning success.
As previously explained, the opening is the beginning of the core learning activities.
Opening sentences, greetings, and prayers are units that must be involved in the learning
process, and this is due to instilling in the students the nature and character of religious
students. Meanwhile, the attendance check aims to find out which students are present to
take part in learning and which students are not present to take part in learning. In
addition, the function of the attendance check is to allow teachers to continue to monitor
student progress. Apperception also can maintain and shape the learning atmosphere to
remain conducive and smooth. This is because perception can form an excellent physical
and psychological atmosphere for students, which creates a feeling of being able to learn
new material. This is in line with the opinion of Octaviani et al. that apperception is an
initial activity in the learning process that aims to direct students' focus to initiate learning.
It also aims to construct students' thinking in order to make them able to understand the
lesson in a coherent and structured manner.118
Conveying the learning objectives, scope, scope of material, learning steps, and
assessment techniques is necessary for students to know the picture of what future
learning will be like and what to do during the learning process. To create a conducive
atmosphere, a teacher can start from the opening of an interesting lesson for students.
According to Abhimanyu in Sundari and Muliyawati, an opening lesson is an activity
carried out by teachers to prepare mental readiness with an initial atmosphere and foster
student attention to focus on the material to be studied.
Teachers have an important role in providing motivation and stimulation that
encourage students so that the learning process runs well and smoothly. Teachers should
not let the concentration of students be divided, which results in student learning
outcomes not being optimal. The interesting opening affects the enthusiasm of students
to participate in learning in class. If the teacher is passionate about teaching, the students
will also be enthusiastic about learning. However, if the teacher looks lethargic,
unenthusiastic about learning, and lazy, then the learning process will be boring and
ineffective. Rumhadi stated that learning motivation is important both for students and
teachers. As for students, the importance of learning motivation is as follows. (a) Make
students aware of the student’s position at the beginning of learning, processes, and
outcomes. (b) Informing about the strength of learning efforts compared to peers. (c)
Analysis of English Lesson Plans of Junior High School Teachers in Bumiayu District
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2373
Directing learning activities. (d) Encouraging learning. (e) Awareness about the journey
of learning and then working.
Ideally, everything written in the lesson plan is carried out thoroughly from the
opening to the assessment. Therefore, compiling the components of learning activities
also requires the basic teaching skills of a teacher. According to Giloman in Firdaus et
al., basic teaching skills are skills that must be possessed by an educator in order to be
able to carry out their duties effectively, efficiently, and professionally.122 Therefore, an
educator will be able to carry out his duties well if he has mastered the basic teaching
skills. So, the first step to creating effective learning begins with careful planning. In
managing a class, a teacher must also have skills; it cannot be careless. This is because
an educator needs to master the skills of managing the class. In line with what was
conveyed by Sanjaya in Pamela et al., classroom management is the skill of an educator
in creating and maintaining optimal learning conditions and returning them when there
are disturbances in the learning process.
From the explanation above, it can be concluded that opening skills will affect
success in future learning activities. If the skills of opening lessons are not implemented
properly, it will hinder the success of learning. In addition, failure to open lessons will
also reduce the enthusiasm, activeness, and interest of students in learning, which will
have a significant impact on the quality of these students. This makes the learning
objectives difficult to achieve.
The researcher can recommend that teacher training related to mastery of opening
learning skills be provided so that teachers know what to do in opening lessons so that
learning can take place optimally and learning objectives can be achieved properly. In
addition, teachers must improve their professionalism in teaching to improve the quality
of education. In this way, teachers can maximise their teaching.
c. Learning activities relevant to the syntax/approach or model applied according to the
21st century (e.g., 4Cs)
In the preparation of lesson plans based on the 21st century (4Cs), it was found that
68% of the 4Cs were still incomplete in representing the components and meaning of the
true 4Cs. At the same time, 24% of lesson plans did not present this component. From the
majority of the lesson plan, only 8% can fully present these components. At the same
time, most of the rest are still incomplete in presentation and do not even fully explain
what activities must be carried out from the 4Cs.
The results of the analysis also found that the use of language in presenting the 4Cs
component was still too theoretical and that the mindset was still based on existing
theories. So, in this 4Cs component, the basis of action does not explain how the 4Cs form
when learning takes place. The impact of this problem lies in the sequence of learning
activities that will be considered meaningless. This could be due to the fact that many
teachers in Indonesia are still trapped in policy trends. What is meant by the policy trend
here is that the teacher includes the 4C components but does not present the contents
clearly. Therefore, the teacher is considered not to fully understand the true meaning of
the 4Cs and how to implement them in learning properly. This is certainly an obstacle in
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Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2374
making 4Cs-based lesson plans. If the 4Cs component is not presented properly, it will
have a negative impact on the quality of students. The impact of the absence of 4Cs
components includes:
1) Students' difficulties in solving problems
2013 Curriculum emphasises mastery of competencies holistically through the
application of learning models that hone students' ability to think scientifically and
critically based on a strong social attitude.124 As for what is meant by critical thinking,
according to Adinda in Sapitri et al., people who are able to think critically use reasonable
thinking to decide what to do according to their intellectual abilities.125 From this
explanation, it can be concluded that critical thinking is very important for students
because it adapts to the development of abilities in the 21st century. If students cannot
think critically, it will make it difficult to solve problems, especially in the learning
process.
2) Lack of student creativity development
According to Akbar in Husien, "creativity is the ability of a person to create
something new or a combination of things that already exist so that it seems there is". It
can be concluded that creativity is a pattern of student behaviour that creates thoughts so
as to produce ideas and activities that are unique and attract the interest of many people
or as the ability to provide new ideas in problem-solving efforts.126 With the lack of
students' creative abilities, students will not be able to produce ideas. These activities are
unique and attract the interest of many people, as well as the ability to provide new ideas
in problem-solving efforts. Thus, it will be an obstacle for students.
3) Students do not have good communication quality
Communication is one of the most important 4C components. Communication is
the ability to transfer information both orally and in writing. 127 From this understanding,
it can be seen that if students cannot communicate well, then communicating the
information given and received by students will not be optimal and will affect the learning
process.
4) Students will find it difficult to collaborate with others
One of the 4Cs components is collaboration. Collaboration is an important
component. This is relevant to Lee, H, et al., who explains that collaboration competence
is the ability to carry out responsibilities set and achieve high standards and goals for
oneself and others.128 With low collaboration skills in students, it will be difficult for
students to have the ability to cooperate, work together, adapt and be responsible. Apart
from the impacts mentioned above, the absence of 4Cs can have an impact on students
who will find it difficult to face the challenges in the millennium era. This is in line with
Sipayung et al., who stated that students could face the challenges of the millennium era,
where students are required to be able to think critically, have creativity, work together
in a network (collaboration), and have good communication in order to master
technological developments in life in the 21st century. 129 This is in line with The
Directorate General of Teachers and Education Personnel, Ministry of Education and
Culture (Kemendikbud), which stated that the 4Cs component must be instilled in
Analysis of English Lesson Plans of Junior High School Teachers in Bumiayu District
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2375
students. Thus, this 4C ability must be embedded in students to face the challenges in the
millennium era.
In the future, the lesson plan needs to be evaluated regarding the presentation of the
4Cs. This evaluation is important so that teachers can understand the components and
meaning of the 4Cs well and can implement them into lesson plans so that the competence
of 21st-century students can be realised. The importance of conducting an evaluation
related to the formulation of learning must be in accordance with the 21st century so that
learning with the application of the 4Cs will improve the quality of education.
d. Aspects of character strengthening, numeric base, old/new literacy, HOTS, HOMS,
and self-determine learning (independent) explore the potential of multiple
intelligence in students.
From the results of the analysis, it can be seen that 66% of lesson plans were less
than perfect in presenting these components. This was because there were still many
teachers who did not understand the true meaning of aspects of character strengthening,
numerical basis, old/new literacy, HOTS, HOMS, and self-determined learning. In the
presentation of the lesson plan, there were still many incomplete components. In addition,
aspects of character strengthening, numerical basis, old/new literacy, HOTS, HOMS, and
self-determined learning are very important components.
Presidential Regulation Number 87 of 2017 concerning Strengthening Character
Education is in the context of realising a cultured nation through strengthening religious
values, honesty, tolerance, discipline, hard work, creativity, independence, democratic,
curiosity, national spirit, love for motherland, appreciation achievement, communicative,
love peace, love to read, care for the environment, care about social, and be responsible,
need character education.130 According to Al Ghazali in Megawangi, the character is
similar to morality, which means the character or habit of doing good things. He describes
that character as a person's behaviour that comes from a good heart. Therefore, character
education is an active effort to form good habits.
Based on the explanation above, this learning activity is very important and must
be presented properly. The researcher suggests that teachers receive counselling so that
they will know more about the true meaning of aspects of character strengthening,
numerical basis, old/new literacy, HOTS, HOMS, and self-determine learning
(independent). With counselling, the teacher can present the components of this activity
and achieve the learning objectives well.
e. some activities facilitate attitudes, knowledge and skills
From the results of the analysis, it was still found that 82% of lesson plans did not
present activities that facilitated attitudes, knowledge, and skills perfectly. At the same
time, 13% of lesson plans did not present this component. Only 5% of lesson plans were
able to present this component perfectly. This indicates that the teacher has not been able
to master writing lesson plans for this component. Meanwhile, presenting activities that
facilitate attitudes, knowledge, and skills is very important so that learning activities can
be understood and clearly described. If the description of learning activities is presented
clearly, in practice, the teacher can be more maximal and master the teaching.
Bunga Putri Maulia, Khairunnisa Dwinalida
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2376
Attitudes, knowledge and skills are an inseparable unit in the world of education.
This is in line with, according to Act No. 63 of 2014, the definition of competence is a set
of attitudes, knowledge, and skills that must be possessed, internalised, and mastered by
students after studying a learning content, completing a program, or completing a
particular educational unit. Susilo conveyed the same thing in Nurfuadi, who stated that
competence is a combination of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes that are reflected
in the habits of thinking and acting. Therefore, competence is defined as knowledge, skills
and abilities controlled by someone who has become a part of him so that he can perform
cognitive, affective, and psycho-motor behaviours well.133 In addition, according to
Woolfolk-Hoy (Indrawan & Abidin, 2022), knowledge (cognitive) is a person's ability to
develop rational or reasoning abilities. Attitude (affective), according to Chaplin, is a
change in attitude or behaviour that is carried out consciously and deeply. Meanwhile,
according to Sudijono, skills (psychomotor) are aspects related to abilities and skills when
someone has received a learning experience.
The impact or risk of the absence of activities that facilitate attitudes, knowledge,
and skills will result in the core competencies that are intended to be achieved not being
realised. The recommendation is that the teachers should pay more attention to this part.
In addition, training in writing activities that facilitate attitudes, knowledge and skills is
needed so that teachers can present these components perfectly. Besides that, the learning
process can contain the intended core competencies and can achieve learning objectives
well.
f. There are complete learning media and resources used
Based on the analysis's results, 34% of lesson plans obtained fully presented the
learning media and resources used. Meanwhile, 29% of teachers did not fully present, and
27% did not present the learning media and resources at all. This is, indeed, a serious
problem. This is because the learning media and resources are both very important
components of learning.
The importance of learning media has been explained by Magdalena et al., who
stated that learning media has an important role in increasing student interest in learning;
this is because the use of media in the learning process can have implications for three
things, among others, on the teacher, on students and in the learning process.135 It is
relevant to the Ministry of National Education in Purba et al., who argue that learning
media is a very important part of the implementation of education in schools. Through
learning media, educators will be more helped because the media functions as a tool to
convey messages or information.136
Not only complete learning media, but learning resources are also important.
According to Samsinar, learning resources are an important component and have a very
important role in improving the quality of learning. Completeness of adequate learning
resources will help students to accept messages or information conveyed by the teacher
easily.137 This is in line with the opinion of Januszewski and Molenda in Rosiyanti and
Muthmainnah, who explains that learning resources are all sources, either messages,
people, materials, tools, techniques, or settings that can be used by students individually
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Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2377
or in groups, to facilitate learning activities and improve performance study. 138 The
availability of adequate learning resources will help teachers and students facilitate the
learning process so that the learning objectives that have been set can be achieved. It is
supported by Samsung, which states that learning resources will increase the learning
productivity of both educators and students, motivation and interest in learning, and
maximum learning mastery because it focuses on individual learning, systematic learning
management, and the use and utilisation of multimedia in learning.139
One of the important essences of the teaching and learning process is the effective
material delivery by the teacher so that students are able to understand the lesson well in
accordance with the instructional objectives that have been set. Learning resources are
vital to delivering the material. Teacher creativity in selecting and utilising appropriate
and relevant learning resources is one of the success factors of a learning process. As
educators, it is very important to have the ability and skills to choose the right learning
resources in the learning process. Therefore, educators must understand well the criteria
for choosing learning resources or learning resources.140
The existence of complete learning media and resources must be supported by the
teacher's ability to adapt the media, sources and materials in the lesson plans to be taught.
Teachers must be able to choose media that is in accordance with the material being taught
so that learning objectives can run optimally. Relevant to Sadiman in Purba et al., teachers
must be able to adapt the learning media to the material that will be taught. Good learning
media must meet several criteria, namely suitability with learning materials, ease of use,
and attractiveness to students so that it will optimise learning outcomes.
Seeing the importance of learning media and resources for instructional activities,
teachers are advised to pay more attention to them. The completeness of the learning
media and resources used can support the continuity of learning and make it easier to
achieve the learning objectives. Teachers also need to be given counselling related to this
matter so that they will know how to select appropriate learning media and resources.
g. The closing sentence consists of conclusions, reflections, feedback, assignments,
moral messages, conveying further learning information, and praying
In the component of the closing sentence, 0% of the lesson plan presented the
closing sentence perfectly. It was found that 92% of the teachers only presented
conclusions, assignments and prayers. At the same time, the perfect closing sentence
consists of conclusions, reflections, feedback, assignments, moral messages, conveying
further learning information, and praying. This may be because many teachers do not
really understand the skills required to close lessons. In fact, if explored more deeply,
closing the lesson is very important and cannot be underestimated. This is relevant to
Sani, who states that closing the lesson is not just a routine activity but an act of the
teacher that needs to be planned systematically and rationally. Therefore, it is important
to review the problem regarding one of the teaching skills that must be possessed by the
teacher, especially in closing the lesson.142
In closing the lesson, teachers should not only close the class formally but also pay
attention to the closing part, such as reviewing the learning that has been carried out and