pISSN: 2723 - 6609 e-ISSN: 2745-5254
Vol. 5, No. 5 May 2024 http://jist.publikasiindonesia.id/
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, May 2024 2054
Implementation of Collaborative Governance in Countering
Terrorism in Indonesia
Muhammad Syauqi Khudzaifi
1*
, Petrus Polyando
2
, Frans Dione
3
Institut Pemerintahan Dalam Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia
1*
2
,
3
*Correspondence
ABSTRACT
Keywords: Global Threat,
Collaborative
Governance, Terrorism.
Terrorism is one of the global threats that can affect
Indonesia's social, political, and economic stability.
Currently, terrorism has been categorized as an
extraordinary crime that requires extraordinary efforts from
various parties to counter it. This research examines and
describes the collaboration process built into countering
terrorism in Indonesia. This research uses a descriptive
qualitative method with six informants as research subjects.
The results show that implementing collaborative
governance to counter-terrorism in Indonesia has been
running well and involves many parties. However, in the
context of the stages of the implementation of collaboration,
there are still obstacles. The motivational factor of the parties
involved in counterterrorism is enough to influence the
imbalance of resources and knowledge among collaborative
actors. Different perceptions in addressing the issue of
terrorism have caused the starting conditions in the
implementation of collaboration not to work correctly. This
affects the commitment between collaboration actors and the
consistency in running various terrorism prevention
programs. In addition, the lack of solid regulations
governing BNPT's role as coordinator in terrorism
prevention causes obstacles in the synergy process.
Collaboration has been implemented in terms of quantity,
but in terms of quality, there are still things that are not
optimal.
Introduction
The development of radical groups that lead to acts of terrorism has become a
national and international security issue. Terrorism is one of the global threats that affect
national and international economic stability because it causes an atmosphere of
widespread terror in society (Reksoprodjo et al., 2018). Radicalism in Indonesia poses a
significant threat to the resilience of state ideology. Information disclosure is the cause of
the development of radicalism, which was once clandestine and is now carried out
Implementation Of Collaborative Governance In Countering Terrorism In Indonesia
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, May 2024 2055
blatantly (Adikara et al., 2021). The pattern of spreading the radical ideology of terrorism
has also begun to undergo changes, which initially from kinship/kinship relationships
have now changed by utilizing technology to spread it.
The report of the results of the UN high-level panel in 2004 entitled "Threats,
Challenges, and Change, stated that in the 21st century, there are 6 (six) threat clusters,
namely social and economic threats (poverty and environmental damage); conflicts
between states; conflicts within states (civil wars, genocides, and other large-scale
criminal events); the threat of nuclear, radiological, chemical and biological weapons;
terrorism; and transnational organized crime. Based on the UN report, terrorism is one of
the threats that Indonesia needs to be aware of. The phenomenon of terrorism can threaten
the state, public, and human security (United et al., 2004).
Terrorism has been categorized as an extraordinary crime, so it requires
multistakeholder cooperation to overcome. The problem of terrorism has become a
particular concern for the international community, including the Indonesian government.
Terrorism severely threatens peace and security and legal, social, and economic
development (Adnan & Amaliyah, 2021).
The pattern and targets of terrorist attacks in Indonesia have also transformed.
Initially, terrorist attacks were carried out with careful planning and focused on attacking
Western symbols such as embassies and foreign nationals. However, now there is a shift
in the pattern of targets of terrorism attacks that are more varied by attacking other targets
such as police stations, places of worship, government offices, and other public spaces
through a single action using suicide bombings or other methods (Nur et al., 2020).
Research from the Indonesian Laboratory 2045 research institute also states that
the majority of terror perpetrators tend to carry out actions by bombing, with the main
targets being individuals / personal assets, religious figures/places, and police officers.
(Fahmi, 2022). The following are the targets of terrorist acts in Indonesia from 2002 to
2021.
Figure 1
Target of Terrorist Attacks in 2000-2021
Tokoh/Tempa
t Religius;
15%
Individu/Aset
Pribadi; 24%
Polisi; 17%
Paramiliter;
1%
Ruang/Tokoh
Publik
lainnya; 6%
Militer; 7%
Media; 2%
Pemerintahan
; 8%
Misi
Diplomatik;
2%
Pariwisata;
13%
Transportasi;
3%
Data tidak
lengkap; 2%
Muhammad Syauqi Khudzaifi, Petrus Polyando, Frans Dione
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, May 2024 2056
Based on the figure above, it shows that the highest target of terrorist attacks from
2000-2021 was to attack individuals/personal assets by 24%. The second highest target
was the police at 17%. Religious figures/places are the third highest target at 15%,
followed by tourism places, government offices, and other public spaces / public figures.
This shows that terrorism is still a strategic issue that has not found an optimal solution
in overcoming it because it is still happening in Indonesia.
The Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the House of Representatives
have also enacted and passed Law Number 5 of 2018 concerning the Eradication of
Criminal Acts of Terrorism as one of the efforts to strengthen the implementation of
counterterrorism policies in Indonesia. Through the implementation of the Law, it is
hoped that counterterrorism can run well from upstream to downstream. Counterterrorism
is carried out by strengthening regulations and synergy in implementing various efforts
to prevent, protect, deradicalize, and crack down on perpetrators of criminal acts of
terrorism.
Based on various challenges in dealing with the growing potential threat of
terrorism and the absence of solid synergy between stakeholders in countering terrorism,
the author will conduct research titled "Application of Collaborative Governance in
Counterterrorism in Indonesia." The results of the analysis of the implementation of this
policy are expected to be an alternative in policy formulation, significantly increasing
synergy and multistakeholder collaboration to maximize the entire nation's potential in
counter-terrorism efforts according to the duties and functions of each party. The above
significantly impacts BNPT's operational activities as an institution mandated coordinator
in countering radicalism and terrorism in Indonesia.
Previous research in a journal entitled Analysis of Yogyakarta Special Region
Police Strategy in Tackling Terrorism (Saputra, 2021). The focus of his research shows
that the DIY Regional Police, in counterterrorism management, has used a Penta helix
participation approach. The program formed by the DIY Regional Police is called Quick
Wins, where counterterrorism activities are carried out by ten work units at the DIY Police
level by involving the participation of 5 counterterrorism elements called Penta helix
consisting of elements of government, private, community, NGOs and
academics/terrorism researchers. This approach contains the intention that
countermeasures can be carried out effectively and efficiently. Ideally, with the
participation of various external parties in carrying out their duties to realize public
security and order (Kamtibmas), there will be no more radical acts and acts of terrorism
in DIY.
From the background and formulation of the problem above, it can be described the
objectives of the research as follows:
1. Describe the condition and efforts of the government in countering terrorism
2. Describe the application of collaborative governance in terrorism prevention in
Indonesia.
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Research Methods
In this study, the author used qualitative research methods with a descriptive
approach. According to (Murdiyanto, 2020), qualitative research is a type of research that
produces findings that cannot be achieved using statistical procedures or by other means
of quantification. Qualitative research is descriptive and tends to use an inductive
approach analysis by emphasizing the understanding of problems in social life based on
reality conditions or natural settings that are holistic, complex, and detailed. (Zuchri,
2021) also, qualitative research data is descriptive in words and images and not in
numbers obtained through in-depth interviews.
Location and Time of Research
The research will be carried out at the National Counterterrorism Agency as an
element of government and other stakeholders spread across Indonesia. It is planned to
take place between June 2023 and May 2024. Researchers limit the area to stakeholders
located in Jabodetabek.
Data sources
In this study, only two parts are needed, namely:
1. Person, a resource that usually provides data in the form of oral answers through
interviews or written answers through questionnaires.
2. Paper (symbol), a data source that presents signs in letters, numbers, images, or other
symbols. With this understanding, "paper" is not limited only to paper as translated
into English but can take the form of laws, regulations, or other supporting data
suitable for documentation methods.
The data sources of this study include two primary sources, namely:
1. Data Primer
Primary data is data obtained from sources without intermediaries. This data was
obtained through interviews with interested parties involved in counter-terrorism efforts.
2. Data Seconds
The secondary data used are various pieces of literature related to counterterrorism
strategies from journals, articles both printed and sourced from the internet, and some
previous research results related to this study, namely, on collaborative governance in
countering terrorism in Indonesia.
Data Validation Techniques
Data in qualitative research can be declared credible if there are similarities between
what the researcher reports and what happens to the object under study (Mekarisce, 2020).
The results of qualitative research require a credibility test that aims to prove that the data
obtained is valid and by the reality that occurs in the object of research. States that the
formulation of data validity examination concerns the criteria of the degree of trust,
transferability, dependability, and confirmability.
Data Analysis Techniques
The stages of research data analysis using theory (Engle, 2015) are:
1. Data Condensation
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Data condensation refers to selecting, focusing, simplifying, abstracting, and
transforming data in field notes and transcripts.
2. Data Presentation (Data Display)
Data on the results of condensation activities are then presented based on the aspects
studied. Presenting data will help us understand what is happening and plan the next work
based on what we have understood.
3. Conclusion Drawing and verification
The third step in qualitative analysis is to draw conclusions and verify them. The
initial conclusions presented are provisional and will change if no substantial evidence
supports the following data collection stage.
Results and Discussion
The National Counterterrorism Agency (BNPT) is a Non-Ministerial Government
Institution (LPNK) located on Jalan Anyar No 12, Sukahati, Citeureup District, Bogor
Regency, West Java. This location was chosen based on several strategic considerations.
First, Sukahati is an area that balances accessibility and privacy. Located not far from the
capital, this area provides easy access for officers and staff while ensuring the operational
safety of the institution from external interference. Second, geographically, Sukahati is
on a relatively stable plain, with minimal risk of natural disasters, which is essential for
the continuity of operations of a security institution. Tropical climatic conditions with
predictable weather variations facilitate activity planning and logistics. In addition, the
surrounding environment, which is a blend of urban and rural areas, provides an
advantage in simulating various scenarios of handling terrorism. Third, security and
confidentiality factors are also significant considerations. BNPT's hidden yet easily
accessible location from the main line facilitates surveillance and reduces unexpected
risks. The presence of this agency in less densely populated areas reduces the risk to civil
society in terms of security.
Analysis of the Application of Collaborative Governance in Countering Terrorism
in Indonesia
In implementing collaborative strategies in terrorism prevention between BNPT
and related stakeholders, the author will provide an overview of the implementation of
collaborative governance, which will be described in four dimensions: starting conditions,
facilitative leadership, institutional design, and collaborative processes. Currently, the
collaboration process is at the core of this model. At the same time, the initial conditions,
institutional design, and facilitative leadership are supports that can make essential
contributions to the collaborative process.
This collaboration model was chosen because it describes in detail how the
collaboration process is cyclical. Researchers also use this theory because, before
cooperation in terrorism prevention in Indonesia, there were leadership activities, trust
between actors, mutual commitment, and institutional structures. This characterizes
collaborative practice. In addition, terrorism prevention in Indonesia has also involved
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Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, May 2024 2059
cooperation between government and non-government, which characterizes collaborative
governance practices.
The implementation of collaborative governance in terrorism prevention in Indonesia has
involved various elements such as academics, business/business actors, civil society,
government, and media. Each stakeholder has roles and responsibilities according to their
capacity and capability. Synergy can accelerate various programs and policies, mainly to
prevent terrorism.
Resource and Knowledge Imbalance Between Collaboration Actors
The results of an interview with Mr. Bangbang Surono, the President and Secretary
of BNPT, regarding indicators of imbalance of resources and knowledge, stated that there
are still differences in perceptions between stakeholders such as elements of academia,
business actors, civil society, and the media in understanding the issue of terrorism.
Therefore, strengthening synergy between the government and relevant stakeholders must
continue to improve to equalize perceptions in the context of the fight against terrorism
ideology. Through synergy and collaboration with various parties, it is hoped that it can
build national resilience and campaign messages not to be tired of the fight against the
ideology of terrorism.
In an interview, Mr. Makmun Rasyid, one of the MUI administrators, also stated
that there are still differences in views from non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
regarding the issue of terrorism. Some NGOs are anti-terrorism because it is considered
to discredit Islam. In addition, there are still NGOs who consider that the spirit of
countering terrorism in the world causes certain people who have an interest in spreading
radical ideology to Indonesia (to seek sympathy).
The results of interviews with several informants indicate that there is an imbalance
of knowledge and resources, both human and financial, in addressing the problem of
terrorism in Indonesia. This is shown by the differences in perceptions/views from
stakeholders in addressing these problems, resulting in not making an optimal
contribution in the dimension of starting conditions in implementing collaborative
governance in countering terrorism in Indonesia.
The results of (Bakti et al., 2021) state that countering terrorism requires social and
cultural engineering to establish cooperation and synergy with all parties, especially the
younger generation, to prevent through counternarrative, counter ideology, and
counterpropaganda of terrorism in cyberspace. The community must be able to play an
active role in efforts to prevent radical acts of terrorism. (Reksoprodjo et al., 2018) They
stated that BNPT had established a Terrorism Prevention Coordination Forum (FKPT) in
the area, an extension and a BNPT think tank. This forum aims to synergize terrorism
prevention efforts involving all elements of society based on the use of local wisdom
values in the regions.
Constraints of Stakeholders to Collaborate (Conflict)
The results of an interview with Mr. Bangbang Surono, the President Secretary of
BNPT, regarding indicators of stakeholder constraints to collaborate (conflict) stated that
collaboration and coordination are easy to say but challenging to implement. For this
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reason, equalizing perceptions regarding terrorism prevention efforts and high
commitment from stakeholders can accelerate various policies and strategies that have
been set together. An apparent reference is needed to regulate the role of each interest
group for optimal collaboration. NAP PE can be one of the guidelines for various parties
ranging from relevant ministries/institutions to all elements of society when
implementing policies, especially in efforts to prevent terrorism in Indonesia. In addition,
it is necessary to support both human resources and budgets for each interest group so
that the implementation of collaboration can run well.
Institutional Design
Participation and transparency are needed in the institutional design dimension to
encourage collaborative processes. This dimension contains several indicators, including
the role and participation of stakeholders in collaborating, transparent collaboration
processes, and basic rules or regulations that support collaboration. The basic rules of
cooperation are mutually agreed upon by the parties, not just the agreement of one of the
parties. This aspect focuses on the clarity of rules and procedures. Rules must be enforced
fairly, transparently, and openly so that the parties can be assured that any discussion and
negotiation is pure and not just lip service to cover up a confidential agreement. The
explanation of each indicator will be described as follows:
Role and Participation of Stakeholders in Collaborating
The results of an interview with Mr. Bani Fajar regarding indicators of the role and
participation of stakeholders in collaborating stated that the role of business actors is to
help equalize perceptions in the community, especially to customers, help campaign for
terrorism prevention through socialization and various training. Security Service Business
Entities (BUJP) that have a role in securing the public sector can help virtualize various
policies made by BNPT.
Transparent Collaboration Process
On the transparency indicator in the collaboration process, Mr. Yaenurendra, as a
member of the NAP PE Secretary, said that collaboration transparency, in terms of
budget, activity programs, and target priorities, has been well implemented. However, not
all intelligence data can be accessed by all parties. This concerns the principle of
confidentiality of intelligence data.
In his interview, Mr. Makmun Rasyid, Deputy of Social and Political Issue CICSR,
also corroborated previous informants' opinions by mentioning that transparency in
preventive actions has been done well because all activities are published through the
media. However, data collaboration has not been carried out transparently because each
stakeholder still has differences in data. In addition, because there is no data collaboration,
it is difficult to find the delivery of ideas in the form of terrorism prevention programs
from the role of stakeholders carried out in a bottom-up manner. This can be done by
expanding aspiration absorption through more massive FGDs and workshops.
Collaboration Process
The collaboration process has three stages: problem determination, goal
determination, and implementation. Communication is at the heart of collaboration, so
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indicators that support the implementation of the collaboration process start from face-to-
face dialogue, build trust and commitment to the collaboration process, and share
understanding and interim results. The explanation of each indicator can be described as
follows;
a. Dialog Tatap Muka (Face-to-Face Dialogue)
In the face-to-face dialogue indicator, the results of an interview with Mr.
Yaenurendra as the RAN PE Secretary team showed that BNPT often carried out face-to-
face dialogues, gathering stakeholders either in a joint or separate forum. The enthusiasm
of the stakeholders has been outstanding, although driven by curiosity from each
stakeholder.
b. Building Trust
In the collaboration process, stakeholders can provide input and be accommodated
to little or little, reflected in a terrorism prevention program. Efforts to build trust between
stakeholders in collaborating are one indicator of a good collaboration process. In the
interview, Mr. Yaenurendra, a member of the Secretary of RAN PE, explained that in the
implementation of collaboration, other parties such as academics, CSOs, media, and
business actors (businesses) were involved in meetings in planning various terrorism
prevention programs. This shows the mutual trust of each interest group in implementing
policies, especially in preventing terrorism in Indonesia.
c. Commitment to the Collaboration Process
In the dimension of implementing collaboration, of course, high commitment is
needed from all parties involved so that the implementation of planned policies can be
carried out correctly. Academics and CSOs show the highest commitment. Commitment
can be conveyed orally and in writing. The commitment of interested parties is usually
marked by various regulations regulating each party's roles, duties, and authorities. For
example, the passing of dangerous goods control regulations used as precursors to
weapons of terrorism is reflected in the program (CBRN). In addition, BNPT has also
established the Nusantara Integrated Area (KTN). KTN is a soft approach that prioritizes
welfare by providing opportunities for deradicalization partners, survivors, and
communities to increase economic productivity. This sector supports the reintegration of
deradicalization partners towards economic independence. In the long run, KTN is
expected to prevent extremism and terrorism by changing the mindset to be more
moderate.
d. Sharing Understanding
Furthermore, related indicators of sharing understanding with all stakeholders in
efforts to prevent terrorism are shown by cooperation agreements involving various
parties. The results of the interview with Mr. Bani Fajar showed that there are business
actors or the private sector, namely PT Sigap Prima Astrea, willing to share understanding
regarding potential acts of terrorism in their work area. This can positively impact all
parties, especially by helping to prevent terrorism by strengthening the protection of
infrastructure facilities. The implementation of various trainings also shows the
strengthening of competence/certification for security units working in various objects so
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that the potential threat of criminal acts of terrorism can be mitigated quickly and
appropriately.
Several aspects found from the results of this study affect the application of
collaborative governance in countering terrorism in Indonesia, including the motivation
factors of the parties involved in countering terrorism, which immensely affect the
imbalance of resources and knowledge between collaborative actors. Differences in
perceptions when addressing the issue of terrorism result in the starting conditions in the
implementation of collaboration that cannot run as it should. Indicators of stakeholder
constraints to collaborate (conflict) have also not contributed optimally to implementing
collaborative governance to counter-terrorism in Indonesia. This is shown by the
difficulty in collaborating due to limited human and budget resources. Not all
stakeholders make the issue of terrorism prevention a significant concern in their business
processes, so the problem of lack of budget for counterterrorism efforts is often one of
the problems found.
The starting condition dimension shows that elements of society and the media are
less involved in formulating various terrorism prevention policies. The community is only
the object of program implementation without involvement in planning. Ideally, the
community should be directly involved in formulating these policies because the
community is more aware of the conditions or facts around their environmental areas.
Media elements are also rarely involved in various disseminations regarding procedures
for reporting arrests or incidents of acts of terrorism. This can affect public perception of
terrorism if delivering news in the media is wrong. Elements of society and the media
must be at the forefront of terrorism prevention programs. The government, in this case
BNPT, which functions as the leading sector in countering terrorism, must develop a
partnership strategy with the community. The role of the community is crucial so that
there is no turmoil in various regions.
In terms of institutional design, it has yielded quite good results. The ratification of
various regulations marks this and the signing of various memorandums of understanding
between BNPT and various stakeholders to combat and prevent terrorism. Since the
enactment of Law Number 5 of 2018 concerning the Eradication of Criminal Acts of
Terrorism, BNPT has the role and responsibility to coordinate various
ministries/agencies, local governments, and all elements of the nation to build national
resilience in the context of preventing criminal acts of terrorism in Indonesia. However,
there are still some indicators that need to be improved in terms of the quality of
implementation. For example, a clear division of roles and responsibilities of each
stakeholder as outlined in a basic rule or regulation such as MoUs and cooperation
agreements requires consistency and transparency in the collaboration process.
The aspect of facilitative leadership in counter-terrorism collaboration has been
well implemented. However, there are still several obstacles, such as the lack of solid
regulations governing the role of BNPT as a coordinator in terrorism prevention; the
BNPT organization is still very young at 13 years old, so sometimes there are still
obstacles in the synergy process, in the private sphere it is felt that it is still not involved
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in terrorism prevention because it has not become a significant concern. The collaboration
process has also shown quite good results. More substantial commitment and consistency
between stakeholders in collaboration are expected to be increased so that the
implementation of various terrorism prevention programs and policies can run optimally.
In this regard, better collaboration is needed from planning and implementation to
evaluation. The collaboration focuses on the involvement of all elements of society by
building and increasing awareness of potential threats of terrorism. This is important so
that the public is not affected by propaganda spread by networks of terrorist groups.
Increasing public insight and knowledge about the dangers of radical terrorism by
recognizing its characteristics, modus operandi, and impact is essential to building
community resilience. This is done by empowering the community. Community
empowerment to anticipate the threat of terrorism in Indonesia requires an operational
framework involving five essential elements: the government, academia, civil society,
business actors, and the media. The central government plays a vital role in determining
policies that will be used as guidelines by local governments and related agencies to
ensure the community environment is safe from the threat of terrorism. The role of
stakeholders is carried out through community empowerment, which is established in
cooperation and is called community partnership. In order to improve the effectiveness
of community empowerment, it is necessary to develop a working guideline that maps
the role of each party in empowering the community and preventing acts of terrorism in
Indonesia.
Conclusion
Based on the results of research that has been described in the previous chapter, the
conclusions of this study are as follows:
1. Generally, governance in countering terrorism in Indonesia has been carried out well
and systematically because there are regulations governing this matter, namely Law
Number 5 of 2018. These regulations can be a reference for Increasing Public
Awareness and Public Engagement and encouraging multistakeholder collaboration to
build public resilience to form prevention, deterrence, and resistance against the
dangers of violent ideologies, radicalism, and terrorism. The role of stakeholders is
carried out through community empowerment, which is established in cooperation and
is called community partnership.
2. The implementation of collaborative governance in countering terrorism in Indonesia
has been running well and involving many parties. However, in the context of the
stages of implementing collaboration, there are still differences in perceptions between
collaboration actors in addressing the issue of terrorism. This affects the commitment
between actors, collaboration, and consistency in various terrorism prevention
programs. In addition, the lack of solid regulations governing the role of BNPT as a
coordinator in terrorism prevention sometimes still causes obstacles in the synergy
process. In terms of quantity, many collaborations have been carried out, but in terms
of quality, there are still things that are not optimal. Early detection of potential acts of
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Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, May 2024 2064
terrorism can be done with the readiness of all elements/interest groups in early
detection and early prevention of all possible possibilities. The synergy between the
government and the public in preventing terrorism positively impacts creating a better
security situation in Indonesia.