pISSN: 2723 - 6609 e-ISSN: 2745-5254
Vol. 5, No. 5 Mei 2024 http://jist.publikasiindonesia.id/
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2403
Analysis of the Use of Social Media as a Means of Spreading
Hate Speech
Talitha Bea Amanda
universitas Indonesia Depok, Indonesia
Keywords: Hate speech;
Regulation; Freedom of
Hate speech in Indonesian is hate speech that cannot be
precisely defined. In its definition, social media is a platform
used freely without pay or binding regulations. This freedom
allows individuals constrained by the rules to voice their
opinions through social media. Hate speech can target
anyone indiscriminately. Victims of hate speech not only
experience defamation but also get psychological injuries
that can lead to death. There must be a binding battle for
individuals who express their opinions too freely on existing
platforms and have no legal provisions. Cooperation
between nations is needed in the suppression of hate speech.
In social society, individuals interact with each other, and one way is to talk; with
the development of technology now, the way individuals interact is increasingly diverse,
one of which is through social media (Christina & Widayatmoko, 2017).
Social media lets us get acquainted with new people in one city and even different
countries. Interestingly, we can interact indirectly with individuals who may have been
considered impossible in the past because of different countries. We can get acquainted
using real names or pseudonyms (Rohmiyati, 2018).
When interacting with social media, using an individual pseudonym can be anyone,
such as a man who introduces himself as a woman, whether older or younger, making it
easy for him to express his opinion without knowing his true identity (Astuti, 2019).
Expressing opinions on what we want or believe is internationally and domestically
protected by law. Sometimes, the right to freedom of expression is misused as self-
protection against the justification for writing hate speech (Farwati et al., 2023).
Hate speech, if interpreted in Indonesian as hate speech, is a social phenomenon in
cyberspace through social media. Hate speech can trigger social conflicts, such as
violence caused by individuals exposed to and believing the hate speech (Mauliyah &
Putri, 2023).
If social media is used wisely, it will be a place to pray and add new information.
However, this beneficial media is used to spread hate speech, so a more profound study
is needed about the protection of the right to express opinions through social media
without causing provocation that leads to violence or even death (Putra, 2017).
Talitha Bea Amanda
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2404
Here, I will raise two examples of hate speech cases, the first in Indonesia and the
second abroad, in South Korea (Anggraini & Hastuti, 2023). These two cases have
something in common, namely that both subjects are targeted by hate speech, which can
damage the good name and cause a psychological impact on the recipient of the hate
speech. Hate speech and biases spread quickly through social media (Rahmat, 2018).
Problem Statement
1. How does social media become a means to communicate?
2. How can we use social media as a medium for spreading hate speech?
3. What impact does the subject receiving hate speech receive?
Research Methods
I am using the assessment method, using articles from the internet and literature
derived from or available on journal pages.
Results and Discussion
Social media is becoming a means to communicate.
Based on its definition, social media is a communication medium that can be used
in various fields.
In the business world, social media is used for product marketing, brand promotion,
and communicating with buyers to get feedback and develop new businesses. Social
media is also often used as a source of buyers, tendencies of buyer desires and market
trends. Social media is usually used as a popular social media platform.
Many social media platforms can be used; below are examples of well-known social
media platforms and the reasons why these platforms are famous (Hejase et al., 2020):
1. Facebook: Free social media, Facebook users can create profiles about themselves,
upload photos and videos, send messages and keep in touch with friends, family, and
2. Twitter is a free microblogging service. Users can broadcast short messages by posting
them on a Twitter page called Tweets and broadcasting their tweets to various
platforms and devices.
3. Wikipedia: a free-based encyclopedia created by various groups called Wikipedians.
Anyone can register on this platform and create articles for free. However, applicants
are not required to edit articles on Wikipedia
4. LinkedIn is a social media platform formed specifically for the benefit of the business
community. LinkedIn users can form and establish job networks of people who can be
trusted professionally
5. Reddit: social media intended to obtain and share information. Reddit communities are
referred to as "subreddits." Each subreddit has a specific topic, such as technology,
politics or music. Known as "Redditors," Redditors write content chosen by other
members. The purpose of Reddit is to provide stories that readers can rate well.
Analysis of the Use of Social Media as a Means of Spreading Hate Speech
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2405
6. Pinterest is a curated social website for sharing and categorising images found online.
Pinterest only requires a short description but can still focus on the image of interest
by clicking on the desired image and then taking the user to the source where the image
originated. For example, by clicking on a picture of a pair of shoes, the user will be
directed to a page to purchase these shoes.
It can be seen that by using social media platforms that are easily accessible, it is
easier for individuals to communicate with each other just by clicking on the platform,
which then directly interacts with other individuals, such as meeting business needs or
communicating with friends, family, and co-workers.
Use of social media as a medium for spreading hate speech
The development of technology allows many people to access social media
networks quickly. As defined above, social media is one such tool in doing business. The
well-known platforms mentioned above have in common the freedom to write down what
is believed to be the individual's beliefs.
Policies used to curb hate speech minimise freedom of speech and often use
violence (Laub, 2019).
It is no wonder that people turn to social media, where the original purpose was as
a communication tool, becoming the place where hate speech is most commonly found
because it is on these platforms that individuals can freely express their opinions, no
matter who is affected. They are protected by the anonymity they use when doing hate
What impact does the subject receiving hate speech have?
Hate speech directed at President Jokowi
Hate speech against the No. 1 person in Indonesia has been very frequent; attacks
using foul language fill social media quickly. Hate speech directed at Mr Jokowi still
occurs today; as an example of a case reported on March 19-March 2020, a 25-year-old
MHP student became a suspect of hate speech against Indonesian President Jokowi
through his social media. "Criminal suspects intentionally and without rights disseminate
information to cause hatred or hostility of MHP's initials," said Head of Public Relations
of Central Java Regional Police, Kombes Pol Iskandar Fitriana when confirmed
CNNIndonesia.com, Thursday (19/3).
The case began when MHP, through its personal Instagram account, @_belummati,
commented on President Joko Widodo's tweet about investment. Therefore, this
@_belummati took a picture of Jokowi's tweet and reuploaded it to his personal Instagram
account with the phrase, "I do not know what is the sin of the Indonesian people to have
a cursed president like Jokowi".
The impact of hate speech
The large number of social media users who follow @_belummati's Instagram
account can lead public opinion against Indonesian President Jokowi; this allows a wave
of anger from the people consumed by these opinions and commit violence against the
government led by Indonesian President Jokowi.
Hate speech directed at one of South Korea's idols, Sulli
Talitha Bea Amanda
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2406
Sulli, whose real name is Choi Jin Ri, is a former idol from one of the famous
Korean groups, f(x). Sulli, who has been in the South Korean entertainment industry since
childhood, often gets hate speech for not following the norms adopted by Korean people.
In addition to hate speech, the pressure she received since she was young when she trained
to become an idol
Sulli often gets hate speech because of her habit of not wearing a bra when wearing
a shirt, her love scandal, or drinking with her friends.
Sulli's habits are, of course, supposed to be personal, but because she is an idol, it
is impossible for her personal life not to be highlighted by the media and seen by the
After a long time as an idol, Sulli decided to quit the idol world and switch to
becoming an actor, but the hate speech she received did not stop; the hate speech
continued to flow through social media.
The impact of hate speech
Sulli, who has been under pressure to become an idol since she was young and
receives hate speech constantly even though she has stopped being an idol, suffers from
severe depression. So, in October 2019, Sulli decided to take her own life; Sulli was found
in her apartment by her manager after being unable to be contacted.
Prevention Efforts
By Government
The Indonesian Ministry of Communication and Information Technology has
activated a hoax crawling engine or harmful content on the internet. Director General of
Information Applications of Communication and Information Samuel Abrijani
Pangerapan said, "This machine effectively identifies negative content. It is said that
negative content can be seen from most of the impact and the level of virality in the cyber
"Once scavenged, this engine can provide results in the form of URLs or links that
can be millions and immediately classify. Workingly, this machine will be more effective
and efficient in terms of time and volume to filter out negative content," Samuel said
when testing AIS at the Kominfo War Room, Jakarta, recently.
This engine can crawl for 5-10 minutes at one time, generating millions of content,
which is then reduced again based on the number of visits and the potential virality of the
content. In its tests, a machine called AIS managed to find 120,000 porn sites from
1,200,000 crawled sites in Indonesia in just three days. "In fact, for several years, the
government has only been able to eliminate 700,000 banned sites," Samuel explained.
AIS works if it finds harmful content that violates the rules. The verifier team marks
the submission (screen capture) and then submits it to the executor team for follow-up.
Within reach of AIS speak, Komifo has collaborated with social media services
such as Facebook, WhatsApp, Twitter, Line, Bigo and Google. "But it is different; if
harmful content is posted on a news portal, then according to press law, the portal's owner
can clarify the news first.
Analysis of the Use of Social Media as a Means of Spreading Hate Speech
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2407
AIS is not only used by Kominfo but can also be used by several other related
agencies, such as BNPT to carry out terrorist activities, OJK for fraudulent investment
activities, BNN to track drug activities, BPOM to track illegal drug trade activities, the
Police, and any party mandated to maintain state unity (Kominfo, 2018).
By other organisational bodies
1. United Nations (UN)
2. Stepping up UN efforts to find the root causes of hate speech
3. Open the possibility of an effective UN response so the community can accept it.
By using the means:
1. Monitor and analyse hate speech
2. Looking for root causes, actors/individuals who perform hate speech activities
3. Providing support to victims of hate speech
4. Meeting with individuals who perform hate speech
5. Using new media (social media) and traditional media
6. Using technology to record and detect hate speech on the internet
7. Educate you on how to be protected from hate speech and not to do hate speech
8. Advocating for exciting ways to speak nicely to avoid using hate speech
One of the problems that occurs in the organisation of Kodam XVII / Cenderawasih
in human resources today is the competency gap between OAP and non-OAP Soldiers.
This problem is the impact of implementing affirmative action policies in soldier
recruitment over the past three years. Recruitment system reforms are a suitable solution
to the root of this problem. However, the affirmation policy has its own story, so those
recruited to be part of Kodam XVII/Cenderawasih soldiers need to be the focus of
attention. The fate of OAP Soldiers has become uncertain with the development of the
personnel system that demands adequate competence and is increasingly dynamic. Efforts
to develop the competence of OAP Soldiers have not been effective enough to eliminate
the competency gap, so reforms to this sub-system need to be carried out immediately
within Kodam XVII/Cenderawasih.
This OAP soldier competency development reform strategy uses a comprehensive
approach that considers timeliness and the existence of solid leadership character within
Kodam XVII/Cenderawasih itself. The strategy adopts an integrated competency
development model combined with a career development model that involves individuals
planning their personal and career development. This is necessary to increase the
motivation of OAP Soldiers to continue to develop and improve their competence to
compete fairly in the merit system, which will be a guideline for the country's civil service
system in the future. Especially with the ASN Bill passed by the House of Representatives
of the Republic of Indonesia, which provides openness for career mobility of both civil
servants and TNI / Polri so that it demands adequate competence and can compete.
Today's use of social media with advanced technology can no longer be prevented. The
Talitha Bea Amanda
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2408
problem with social media is freedom of opinion, which the community does not use
Hate speech against someone can not only damage the image of that person but can
also cause riots, as Mr Jokowi, who is the head of the Indonesian government but is the
target of hate speech, can lead public opinion to the President of the Republic of Indonesia
as an individual who is not worthy of being a leader so that in the form of protests the
community can riot so that their voices are heard. In addition to defamation, victims of
hate speech targets can also become depressed, such as in the case of Sulli above, who
felt that she was no longer able to accept endless hate speech, so she decided to commit
Prevention carried out nationally and internationally uses an approach that can
prevent hate speech, both circulating in the community and not circulating, by
approaching it through education.
Analysis of the Use of Social Media as a Means of Spreading Hate Speech
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2409
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