pISSN: 2723 - 6609 e-ISSN: 2745-5254
Vol. 5, No. 5 Mei 2024 http://jist.publikasiindonesia.id/
Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2235
Reforms in the Competency Development Strategy of
Indigenous Papuan Soldiers in Kodam XVII/Cenderawasih
Anis Misiyanti
, M. Azis Muslim
Universitas Indonesia Depok, Indonesia
Keywords: Affirmations;
Indigenous Papuans;
Human Resources;
Affirmation has consequences for the emergence of
competency gaps, as happened in the recruitment results of
Indigenous Papuan soldiers (OAP) in Kodam
XVII/Cenderawasih. So, to overcome this gap, reforms are
needed in human resource development, especially in
competency development. This paper examines the
competency gaps in OAP soldiers recruited from the
affirmation program. The research was conducted using
qualitative methods on data obtained through in-depth
interviews with several resource persons, namely Kodam
XVII/Cenderawasih officials. The results found that the
competency gap between OAP soldiers and the
competencies needed in military positions requires
integrative competency development efforts. This study
concludes that the reform of competency development of
OAP Soldiers in Kodam XVII / Cenderawasih is essential to
overcome the competency gap and prepare them to face the
dynamics of the personnel system, especially with the ASN
Bill, which demands adequate competence.
According to Rafi (2023), affirmative action policies help minority groups obtain
justice that cannot be obtained due to historical background reasons. On the one hand,
this policy provides unique opportunities to certain minority groups but sometimes
ignores aspects of competence required in recruitment selection. Sander and Alauddin (
consider that this often leads to control over the quality of reception results. On the other
hand, state civil service reform seeks to realize professionalism supported by adequate
and standardized competencies.
Faced with the need to affirm equality of opportunity while meeting the demands
of professionalism, the middle ground may be implementing affirmative policies for
minority group participation. We need to apply time limits and quotas that decrease over
time. In line with this, optimization of the merit system also needs to be carried out to
improve the achievement of competencies according to the expected standards. It is
expected that by the end of the affirmation period, minority groups have the competence
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Jurnal Indonesia Sosial Teknologi, Vol. 5, No. 5, Mei 2024 2236
to follow the merit system fully without causing inequality of career opportunities
between minorities and majorities.
As one of the organizations involved in the implementation of the affirmation path
recruitment policy, in 2019, the XVII/Cenderawasih Regional Military Command
(Kodam) enforced the Chief of Army Staff (KASAD) policy regarding soldier
recruitment within Kodam XVII/Cenderawasih with an allocation of 80% sourced from
Indigenous Papuans (OAP) and 20% from non-OAP. Before the policy was
implemented, OAP had been part of Kodam XVII/Cenderawasih for a long time, but since
2019, there has been a significant increase in numbers. Compared to the total number of
soldiers, the number of OAP Soldiers sourced from recruitment from 2019 to 2021
contributed 9.4% of the strength, and the number of Non-commissioned Officers
contributed 18.8% of the strength (Kudam XVII/Cenderawasih, 2023). This data does not
include other rank groups, such as Enlisted and Officers, and also does not consider the
number of OAP non-commissioned officers who entered through recruitment in previous
years. It can be estimated that the number of OAP soldier personnel is even higher (Le
Deist & Winterton, 2005).
Affirmative policies that provide ample opportunities for OAPs to become soldiers
have provided more significant opportunities for them, but their presence in military
organizations raises new competence-related problems. Despite the debate and views that
regard affirmations as another form of discrimination, the most crucial point to be learned
in the case of OAP soldiers is that affirmations only stop at the recruitment process.
Meanwhile, those who have been accepted as soldiers must take their respective career
journeys and compete with non-OAP soldiers. Seeing such conditions, an integrated
competency development strategy is needed to reduce the gap between the competencies
needed in military positions and those mastered by OAP soldiers. This paper will describe
how to develop integrated competencies needed to improve the competence of OAP
Research Methods
This study used qualitative data collection and analysis methods. Then, the
constructivist paradigm is used to find facts and parse the problems to be discussed. The
data collected in this study include primary and secondary data. The primary data was
investigated through in-depth interviews with related parties, including Personnel
Officers in the Kodam XVII / Cenderawasih ranks. Secondary data are obtained from
archives of unit data, news in the mass media, and studies of various relevant literature.
The data collection results are then analyzed to answer the problems discussed in this
Results and Discussion
The purpose of carrying out soldier recruitment aligns with the direction of human
resource management within the TNI, which is to realize the TNI's strategic plan in the
field of posture and professional soldiers. The current TNI strategic plan is consistent in
Reforms in the Competency Development Strategy of Indigenous Papuan Soldiers in Kodam
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continuing to fulfill the Minimum Essential Force (MEF) to realize an ideal TNI posture
to achieve three main aspects, namely (1) Advanced and Independent Indonesia, (2) Just
and Democratic Indonesia, and (3) Safe and Peaceful Indonesia. Efforts to fulfill the TNI
MEF are carried out continuously and gradually, starting from the MEF Development
Phase I in 2010-2014, Phase II in 2015-2019, and Phase III in 2020-2024, which is still
ongoing. Phase III is the last stage of development towards the fulfillment of MEF.
According to the National Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMN) for 2020-2024,
the MEF target is to achieve MEF beyond 100%. The effort focused on three main
aspects, including the Main Equipment of Weapon Systems (Alutsista), Maintenance and
maintenance (Harwat), and Organization and Infrastructure (defense industry,
professionalism, and welfare). Professionalism and the welfare of soldiers are the main
objectives to be achieved in every strategy described in the strategic plan for human
resource management.
Professional soldiers are one of the TNI's identities, as stated in Law Number 34 of
2004. Soldiers must meet the necessary prerequisites as professional soldiers, including
proficiency in using military equipment, proficiency in moving, proficiency in using
combat equipment, and being able to carry out tasks measurably and meet the values of
accountability. In addition to mastering technical skills and knowledge, one must have
morale, a spirit of devotion and high discipline, be responsible, and uphold military honor
(Puspen TNI, 2006). So, at least the competencies that a professional soldier must possess
are four typologies of competence, which include 1) personal competence consisting of
a) meta competence and social competence; and 2) occupational competence consisting
of a) cognitive competence and functional competence (Makarova et al., 2019).
However, the issue of soldier competence is complicated because the assessment
of individual performance in Kodam XVII/Cenderawasih has been eliminated since 2022
due to budget constraints. Performance appraisal is an essential part of knowing the
performance of each soldier. In addition, competency assessment is carried out as a mere
budget absorption obligation, such as UTP / UTJ (Individual Technical Test / Position
Technical Test), Periodic Physical Freshness Test, Shooting, Latorsar (Basic Individual
Training), as well as data collection of foreign language skills. In fact, according to De
(Holbeche, 2018), in the integrative competency development model, assessment or
competency assessment has an important role. It is carried out continuously in line with
the implementation of career development programs based on needs-based assessment
As a result of the absence of performance appraisal, it is difficult to measure the
achievement of individual soldiers' performance, so to know their performance indirectly
can only be seen through counterproductive behavior reflected in violations recorded in
the XVII/Cenderawasih Kodam Law Unit (Kumdam). According to (Koopmans et al.,
2012), individual performance can be measured based on task performance, contextual
performance, and counterproductive behavior. Task and contextual performance
contribute positively to performance improvement, while counterproductive behavior
contributes negatively. Thus, indications of low performance can be seen from the highly
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counterproductive behavior of OAP Soldiers. Based on the data, it is known that of the
395 violations committed by Kodam XVII/Cenderawasih soldiers, 127, or around
32.49%, were committed by OAP soldiers. Of all violations, desertion, and THTI (No
Attendance Without Permission), as many as 80 people, or 62.9%, ranked first in the most
frequent violations, followed by acts of destruction of as many as 12 people, misuse of
weapons/munitions as many as six people, and the rest other violations. When compared
to the previous year, there was an increase in the number of violations by 45.9%.
The cause of this problem that can be identified is that the recruitment process
focuses on the target interest and overrides the quality of personnel recruited, resulting in
a competency gap between OAP and non-OAP. According to military teachers during
primary education at the Rindam XVII / Cenderawasih Non-commissioned Officer
Candidate School (Secaba), some OAP soldiers were not fluent; some could not read and
write. However, others, especially from urban areas, had better competence beyond non-
OAP. In addition, the education method is carried out equally as in other soldiers (non-
OAP), with the target of achieving competence focused on mastering knowledge and
technical skills 50%, behavioral attitudes 30%, and physical freshness 20%. While with
the fact that the competent in the field of knowledge and technical OAP soldiers are on
average behind non-OAP, when faced with this target, of course, it is not pursued in the
exact duration of education as non-OAP. Primary education (Secaba) is given for three
months, and branch education (Dikjur/Dikcab) is given for five months in formal
education. According to Leonardo and Eichinger (2000), direct learning media involving
experiences such as OJT (Job Training) is the most important source of new knowledge
in the learning process. They identified 70% of experiential learning, 20% from social
interaction, and 10% from formal education. Thus, competency development methods
that need to be given to OAP soldiers to improve competence and reduce competency
gaps need to be differentiated according to existing competency backgrounds and need to
consider methods of involvement in direct experience, such as OJT, with a more
significant portion or duration of time. In addition, in De Vos' integrated competency
development model, assessment and linkage with sustainable career management are
Based on the above problems, this paper provides reform recommendations on the
subsystem of state personnel development for OAP Soldiers. Thus, the following
discussion will explain the importance of reform in the competency development
subsystem in overcoming problems and then present recommendations for integrative
competency development models as proposals for reforms in appropriate competency
development for OAP Soldiers.
Appropriate Reform Focus: Reforms on Competency Development Subsystems
Soldiers, although their military status and position are specifically regulated in the
TNI Law, in the state civil service is part of the state civil service system regardless of
civil or military status but still respect the basis of civil-military relations, namely civilian
supremacy, which is a commitment to the Indonesian state. This is in line with the
definition of the state personnel system (Kardi, 2015), which can be considered as an
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institution or a whole of more or less coherent norms and values that develop and persist
over time. Also, the (Prasojo, 2010) explanation of the state apparatus (civil service)
refers to government or state bodies where full-time work, salaried, and recruited
systematically in a transparent hierarchical relationship system based on uniform rules
and with adequate pension benefits provisions. Thus, in the state civil service system that
at least 1) deals with state employees as human resources and proactive ways of managing
them; 2) is an effort to obtain commitment from state employees to the goals of the state;
3) regulated and administered under public law, specifically applicable state
administrative law; and applied both at the central and regional government levels
(Prasojo, 2020) soldiers can also be counted as state employees or state apparatus.
The state personnel system is part of the state administration system, so the
challenges faced in the state administrative system or bureaucracy cannot be separated
from the human aspect or the state personnel itself. The fundamental problem bureaucracy
faces is changing the culture, which includes incorruptibility and performance culture.
Changes in the global environment are needed considering the dynamics of changes,
especially in the field of public governance that continues to run. According to Kwon Gi
(Kardi, 2015), bureaucratic governance has undergone various transitions. The most
sophisticated has been known as Governance 4.0, achieved by Korea and Singapore, a
4th generation administrative model emphasizing speed, governance, and ethics.
Meanwhile, according to Kwon Gi Heon's mapping, the Indonesian state is still in
Governance 1.0 or tends towards a bureaucratic-oriented political model. This position is
behind Malaysia with Governance 2.0 and Japan with Governance 3.0.
Despite this lag, governance is closely related to the democratic system of
government that is to be achieved. However, democracy is not helpful in terms of
economic, social, and good governance indicators. In addition, there is a negative image
of bureaucracy in Indonesia, which is considered a pathology; bureaucracy is considered
incompetent, ineffective, corrupt, full of interests, authoritarian, and even influenced by
external pressures, including prerequisites for multilateral cooperation. Pathologies in the
bureaucracy are, for example, challenging to control, reluctant to initiative and risk, the
culture of waiting for guidance, rigid and complex laws, and regulations, low priority of
technology use, old school, and criminalization of bureaucracy has an impact on the
decline of public trust (distrust), disappointment, complaints, protests, and indications of
low employee performance. To overcome this so that it does not drag on, public
administration reform is needed to encourage governance to achieve the expected
democratic national development goals. They are included in the defense sector, where
soldiers or the military become the main stars in issues related to the level of public trust
and satisfaction with public services provided by the TNI and are faced with increasingly
intense democratic demands.
According to Martin Luther and Woodrow Wilson, reform means mobilizing to find
fault in the environment and fight and correct the error. Based on this, reform can be
defined as 'an attempt to implement new ideas and combine ideas in the administrative
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system with a conscious/deliberate view to improve the entire system to achieve positive
development goals.
(Holbeche, 2018) mentions that the primary keys to change include humans and
culture, processes, and tools. Of the three keys, people and culture are the most critical
aspects, with a percentage of 70% contributing to the success of change. Thus, reform in
public administration needs to start with reforming the state civil service system, where
there are human and cultural aspects. However, change is not easy and without obstacles.
According to Geoffrey Shepherd, there are at least three major obstacles that must be
faced in implementing reforms, namely: 1) weak desire to promote more efficient and
honest public administration due to the influence of the solid political situation and the
tendency to continue the traditional system that hinders the movement for change; 2) there
is a significantly larger government posture than before which is influenced by an increase
in the population, which for political purposes is accommodated as state employees; 3)
Some of these state employees have emerged as interest groups powerful enough to
influence or even oppose change efforts. Not only does it occur in the civil service
environment, but in the military environment with a hierarchical organizational culture
and an extreme level of obedience to patronage, this problem is also faced in efforts to
change the military body. However, despite the challenges that must be faced, change is
still needed to adapt to the ongoing environmental dynamics.
The focus of reforming the country's civil service system includes planning,
recruitment and selection, a compensation system, performance management, and state
personnel development. First, civil service planning intends to identify future employee
needs, find, select, obtain, and place the best employees according to organizational
needs, and ensure the flow and mobilization of employees run efficiently and effectively.
Second, recruitment and selection of state employees are all activities directly directed to
obtain potential employees and attract all appropriate applications. The goal is to obtain
the best people who fit the job based on objective criteria. Thus, the recruitment and
selection process must be open, competitive, legal, non-discriminating, have fixed
criteria, be neutral, objective, transparent, protect personal data, and there must be no
delay. There are several methods in the personnel selection process, such as patronage,
merit system, seniority, representative, affirmation, and electoral popularity. Third, state
personnel compensation. Philosophically, compensation itself has several meanings,
according to (Hafied et al., 2022), which includes various organizational activities aimed
at allocating compensation and benefits for employees, where the compensation
philosophy is built based on the needs and conditions of the organization. Boyd and
Salamin cite three philosophies for regulating compensation systems that include decent
and fair compensation, recognition of the importance of each employee's contribution to
the organization, and compensation packages for offers that must compete in the external
labor market to attract and retain capable staff. Compensation can be in the form of
financial, both direct, such as basic salary, and indirect, such as health insurance, and non-
financial, such as position and work environment. Compensation is expected to be given
relatively, so it is calculated based on individual contributions. Several methods are
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commonly applied, such as seniority-based payroll, merit-based payroll, skill and
competency-based payroll, and gainsharing. Fourth, state personnel performance
management. Performance management is a system built to manage organizational and
employee performance and integrate organizational performance management with
employee performance. Organizational and individual performance have complementary
focuses and targets, so organizational strategy management cannot be separated from
personnel management strategies as part of organizational planning. Finally, state
personnel development aims to overcome the competency gap between employees and
current job demands. In addition, development is also carried out to prepare candidates to
have competency proficiency according to the needs of future jobs and to support the
employees' career development.
This reform in the development of state personnel is the focus of the sub-system in
personnel reform, which is relevant to the problem of competency gaps that occur in
Indigenous Papuan Soldiers in the XVII/Cenderawasih Military Regional Command area.
This does not mean that other subsystems, ranging from recruitment and selection,
performance management, and compensation, do not require reform, but what is more
targeted with the problem of OAP soldiers' competency gaps is to improve and develop
the competence of recruitment results, which is a wise responsibility in dealing with these
problems. Ideally, the recruitment process is carried out in such a way as to obtain the
best quality resources to fill the available positions. However, affirmation is another story
that cannot be ignored in a country with a level of ethnic, cultural, and historical
background diversity, such as Indonesia. The outcome of the recruitment, including the
soldiers recruited through the affirmation program, is a decision that has become the
state's responsibility. The TNI strategic plan aims to realize the professionalism of
soldiers, but it is also the responsibility of the state to maintain and improve the
professionalism and welfare of soldiers. Professionalism can be improved through
competency development, which is a step to improve the welfare of soldiers non-
financially, which can be in the form of career advancement in the future.
With all the changes in the country's personnel system, the military organization
must also be able to adapt to these changes. The revision of the State Civil Apparatus
Law, which was just passed by the House of Representatives of the Republic of Indonesia
(DPR RI) on September 30, 2023, has accommodated a more dynamic career system with
the application of a competency-based merit system. Certain positions in the TNI can now
be the purpose of career mobility of civil servants, and vice versa, as contained in article
19, which reads, 'Certain ASN positions can be filled from a) soldiers of the Indonesian
National Army, and b) members of the National Police of the Republic of Indonesia; and
article 20 which reads 'Civil servants may occupy positions within the Indonesian
National Army and the National Police of the Republic of Indonesia by the required
competencies.' So, soldiers must not be left behind in competency development.
Therefore, reform in this development subsystem is the most appropriate implementation
because of the competency gaps in OAP Soldiers in Kodam XVII / Cenderawasih.
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Design of Soldier Development Reform through an Integrated Competency
Development Model
Appropriate reform strategies are carried out to develop OAP soldiers using a
comprehensive approach. This comprehensive strategy is considered appropriate for the
problem of the OAP soldier competency gap, considering that military organizations such
as Kodam XVII / Cenderawasih have strong leadership characteristics. In contrast, the
Commander of Kodam XVII / Cenderawasih, which Major General TNI Isaac
Pangemanan currently holds, has the characteristics of a firm and charismatic leader with
a background in the position of leading and controlling troops in the Military Resort
Command (Korem) 172 / PWY which is carrying out operational tasks in the Papua
region. The second consideration is the right time; where since the last two years, the
massive acceptance of OAP soldiers for the affirmation route has significantly increased
the number of OAP soldiers in Kodam XVII/Cenderawasih, so competency development
actions need to be taken immediately to avoid a protracted competency gap that will have
a more significant impact on individual and organizational performance.
Reforms in the human resource development system of OAP Soldiers are closely
related to competency development. Changes that need to be made are to the competency
development system, which has been based only on the needs of the position. This causes
soldiers to be reluctant to be involved in development programs for various reasons,
ranging from reluctant to get out of their comfort zone at work, reluctant to be given a
stricter task if they keep getting the same salary, and the absence of individual soldier
involvement so far in the career planning process, so they think they have good
competence or do not have the same in a military work environment that is seen as relying
solely on physical advantages. Even though these views are obsolete and are not by the
expected goals of military professionalism. Military professionalism demands
Since David McClelland (1973) published his article "Testing for Competence
Rather than Intelligence," academic ability and knowledge alone are seen as not
necessarily indicative of one's performance or success. Meanwhile, individual character
and competence reflect one's high performance better, so competency terminology
emerges that is more used in human resource management. The typology of competencies
in this study is based on the concepts built by (Venesaar et al., 2021), which are grouped
based on their application, including conceptual and operational competencies. Moreover,
based on its scope, it is grouped into occupational and individual competence.
Occupational competence consists of conceptual aspects, including cognitive,
knowledge, and understanding, and operational aspects, including functional
competencies, psycho-motor, and applied skills. At the same time, personal competence
consists of conceptual aspects, which include meta-competence and learning abilities, as
well as operational aspects, which include social competence, including attitudes and
behaviors. Therefore, competency development reform for Soldiers needs to be directed
at the target of mastering the four competency typologies. The classification of
competencies possessed by OAP soldiers can be explained in these four classifications
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based on their application as conceptual and operational competencies, as well as in both
work and individual applications.
(Hafied et al., 2022) has paved the way for professional development through a
competency framework built on four key factors, namely (1) performance criteria
developed about life outcomes, including employment, (2) assessments designed to
reflect changes in learning, (3) providing the information necessary to improve
competencies, and (4) the use of realistically observable performance measures. So,
according to him, to understand the performance of the position, a person must be
evaluated by his job responsibilities. This evaluation assesses work-related competencies
to be considered in competency development programs to improve performance that will
be carried out next.
Industrial Organisational Psychology in 1997 reviewed the application of
competency models, compared them with job analysis models, and noted the advantages
and weaknesses of each technique. One of the advantages of competency models over
traditional job analysis models is that they are often related to business objectives and
organizational strategies and provide direction toward core competencies. Then, in 1990,
the United States Office of Personnel Management (OPM) began to develop a
competency model by combining aspects of traditional job analysis, resulting in a
competency model that has an empirical basis.
Lucia and Lepsinger (1999) explain that competency models identify critical
success factors of organizational performance. According to Spencer et al. (1997),
competency assessment is used to assess the extent to which a person has these critical
competencies. So, in the 1990s, competency-based Human Resource Management was
called 'competency-based HRM.
The development of this model is an organizational response to external turmoil
and changes that demand flexibility in the organization and the need for competitive job
design, resulting in a shift in approach from traditional work-based to competency-based
systems. This shift in competency-based systems has affected organizational goals to
identify critical abilities and successful job performance and assign employee tasks based
on their abilities or competencies, not the position or job. So, the focus is no longer on
the job or requirements but on employees with competencies that form the basis of human
resource management practices, such as in the selection process, performance
management, training, and development and reward management.
(Holbeche, 2018) recognize that competency development is an integral part of
competency management. Competency management is defined (Holbeche, 2018) as an
effective means commonly applied in organizations to select, classify, assess individuals,
manage careers, and develop and assess their performance. (Holbeche, 2018) created a
model to combine different stages in competency development in an organization, and it
is a process that will never end. This means that the integrated stages in the competency
development cycle start with a competency assessment, and then a personal development
plan is made. The competency development process will involve education, training, on-
the-job learning, and career management. As a result, a person's staffing performance will
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be achieved. And so on, and will return at the assessment stage to develop other
competencies further. These stages are described by (Holbeche, 2018) in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Integrative Model of Competency Development
Sumber: De Vos, dkk (2001) dalam Shaw-Chiang Wong (2020), Competency Definition,
Development, and Assessment: A Brief Review. International Journal of Academic Research in
Progressive Education and Development, September 2020, Vol.9, No. 3, 95-114.
Competency development needs to consider a thorough analysis of the work
environment, linking competencies with the organization's vision, mission, goals, and
values, future job requirements, and suggestions and input from various stakeholders.
In addition, there are several techniques in identifying and developing
competencies, as noted by Chung and Wu (2011), based on those developed by
researchers, including interview techniques, Delphi or expert panels, surveys,
competency database models, analysis of job functions and tasks, and direct observation.
Among these techniques, the classical approach recommends relevant competency
development techniques for future use. It has been tested in various sectors, including the
military, health, and education. Spencer and Spencer (1993) arrange six stages for
classical competency studies, as shown in the table below.
Table 2
Six Stages of Classical Competency Study
Defining effective
performance criteria
Identify sample criteria
- Hard outcome measurement
- Supervisor nomination
- Peer rating
- Customer ratings
- Best performance
- Lowest performance
Socio-economic context
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Data collection
Analyse data and develop
competency models.
Validate the competency
Prepare for the implementation
of the competency model
- Observation
- BEI (behavioral Interview
- Panel
- Survey
- Job duties
- Required competencies
- Identify the second sample
- Test
- Rating
- Selection
- Training
- Professional development
- Performance appraisal
- Evaluation
Sumber: Spencer dan Spencer (1993) dan Wong, Shaw-Chiang. 2020. Competency Definitions,
Development, and Assessment: A Brief Review. International Journal of Academic Research in
Progressive Education and Development. September 2020. Vo. 9, No. 3, 95-114.
Here, human resource development has a vital role in formulating appropriate and
necessary strategies to, in addition to developing individual competencies, attract
individual involvement in the development programs prepared. Therefore, it is necessary
to measure the competencies that are components to determine what kind of development
program needs to be applied to each individual according to different needs. Competence
assessment among Soldiers has been applied as an obligation to work programs and
budget absorption only so that in its application, the assessment results cannot be a
reference in designing development programs. This needs to be addressed to realize a
better soldier career development system.
Competency development is also inseparable from career development. Career
development includes career planning and career management. Simamora (2001) defines
career planning as the identification process of individuals taking steps to achieve success
or career goals. At the same time, career management is the process of selecting,
assessing, assigning, and developing, carried out by the organization to its employees to
provide quality human resources for meeting future needs.
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Figure 3
Career Development Model
Competency development strategy with integrated model De Vos (2005) which
includes stages of assessment, personal development planning; implementation of
competency development programs covering education, training, OJT, and career
management; and leading to self-directed behavior to perform well, which is implemented
continuously integrated with the career development model (Simamora, 2001) is a
recommendation that is expected to provide changes in the development of OAP Soldiers'
competencies so far. The competency development design of OAP Soldiers in Kodam
XVII/Cenderawasih can be described as follows.
Figure 4
OAP Soldier Competency Development Model Design
First, the assessment process needs to be carried out through a competency
assessment of OAP soldiers, both from the perspective of competency needs for the
organization and self-development needs for the soldiers themselves. At the assessment
stage, from the perspective of this organization, classical methods can be used, starting
from identifying effective performance criteria, identifying sample criteria, collecting
data, analyzing data, and developing appropriate competency models. Meanwhile, the
assessment to see the competency needs of each individual is carried out on all soldiers
according to the competency needs required in each position currently occupied and
1. Assessment
measure the
competence of
2. Personal
3. Competency
onal and
Career Planning
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projections of future positions. Thus, competency development itself cannot be separated
from career development.
Second, a personal development plan is carried out that is adjusted to the results of
the competency assessment of each individual and the performance criteria for each
position. Then, at this planning stage, it is necessary to consider individual career
planning. Individual career planning is essential in preparing soldiers' personal
development plans to ensure the direction of competency development that will be carried
out in line with future career plans. It is necessary to give authority to the individual to
plan his future career to motivate them to continue to develop. Meanwhile, individual
career planning itself cannot be separated from career management implemented by the
organization, so individual plans to develop themselves with organizational needs remain
in line and continuous.
Third, the competency development model is prepared based on the results of the
competency assessment analysis and by considering personal development plans and
individual career plans. Competency development can be in Education, Training, OJT,
and career management. The choice of the form of a development program to be carried
out is adjusted to the target competencies to be achieved.
The success of this development program will be seen from the achievement of the
goals of the development itself. In this case, developing OAP Soldiers aims to eliminate
the competency gap and realize professional soldiers. So, the stages in this development
model do not stop but are carried out continuously back again at the assessment stage to
evaluate the achievement of development that has been carried out and develop better
programs to increase the success of achieving goals.
One problem in the organization of Kodam XVII / Cenderawasih in human
resources today is the competency gap between OAP and non-OAP Soldiers. This
problem is the impact of implementing affirmative action policies in soldier recruitment
over the past three years. Recruitment system reforms are a suitable solution to the root
of this problem. However, the <